Upsc Mains Essay Paper 2008

This should also help those preparing CPF Examination because they also have similar paper.

  1. Why is Compulsory English paper important?
  2. How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?
  3. 1997
  4. 1998
  5. 1999
  6. 2000
  7. 2001
  8. 2002
  9. 2003
  10. 2004
  11. 2005
  12. 2006
  13. 2007
  14. 2008
  15. 2009
  16. 2010
  17. 2011

Why is Compulsory English paper important?

  • In the UPSC Civil Service Mains Exam, you’ve to face a compulsory English language paper worth 300 marks.
  • Although the marks scored in this paper, are not counted in the final merit list, but if you fail in this paper, they will not check your other papers and thus you miss the interview train.
  • In the UPSC 2010, total 819 candidates failed in the compulsory English paper. Therefore, you must not take the Compulsory English language paper lightly.

How to Prepare compulsory English Language Paper for UPSC Mains?

  1. Just solve all the previous years’ question paper given below. Want PDF file? Then Click me to download
  2. if you’re really weak , then use the Compulsory English for Civil and Judicial Services by AP Bhardwaj (TMH Publication)

1997

Q. 1. Write an essay of about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Tolerance is the key to national unity
(b) Your idea of a happy life
(c) Advertisements : need for control
(d) Is vegetarianism a virtue ?
(e) Failures are the pillars of success

Q. 2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow in your own words as far as possible. 75
It is true that the smokers cause some nuisance to the non-smokers, but this nuisance is physical while the nuisance that the non-smokers cause the smokers is spiritual. There are, of course, a lot of non-smokers who don’t try to interfere with the smokers. It is sometimes assumed that the non-smokers are morally superior, not realizing that they have missed one of the greatest pleasures of mankind. I am willing to allow that smoking is a moral weakness, but on the other hand we must beware of a man without weakness. He is not to be trusted. He is apt to be always sober and he cannot make a single mistake. His habits are too regular, his existence too mechanical and his head always maintains its supremacy over his heart. Much as I like reasonable persons, I hate completely rational beings. For that reason, I am always scared and ill at ease when I enter a house in which there are no ash-trays.

The room is apt to be too clean and orderly, and the people are apt to be correct and unemotional. Now the moral and spiritual benefits of smoking have never been appreciated by these correct, righteous, unemotional and unpoetic souls. In my opinion the smokers’ morality is, on the whole, higher than that of the non-smokers. The man with a pipe in his mouth is the man after my heart. He is more genial, more open-hearted, and he is often brilliant in conversation. As Thackeray observes, “The pipe draws wisdom from the lips, of the philosopher and shuts up the mouth of the foolish; it generates a style of conversation that is contemplative, thoughtful, benevolent and unaffected.”

(a) What kind of hardship do .a smoker and a non-smoker cause to each other ? 15
(b) Why is it wrong to think that a non-smoker is morally superior to a smoker ? 15
(c) Why is a man without any moral weakness untrustworthy ? 15
(d) What pleasure of life is missed by a non-smoker ? 15
(e) What does Thackeray mean to say ? 15

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in about 230 words. As far as possible, the precis should be in your own words. It should be written on the special sheets provided, which should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words in your answer. 75
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
In our country begging has become a profession and the beggars continue to increase in numbers. So, vast indeed is the fraternity of these beggars that foreigners visiting India, especially ,cities like Varanasi, our cities of pilgrimage, have been led to call our cities the cities of beggars and of dust ! There are no statistics available for estimating their number, but that is not needed for our present purpose. Of course, any practical reform in this matter does not require a close investigation into the causes and conditions of the existence of beggars, but we are here concerned with the question of seeing how these beggars live and what, in particular, is the effect on society of their existence.

As already suggested, the vastness of the number of the Indian beggars is evident to any visitor from a foreign country. The causes of the increase in the number of beggars are many, but of these we may just consider only a few. For good or evil, Indians have been very religious in their outlook on life, and also very generous and hospitable towards those who go to them for begging. Our Puranas and Shastras point out that giving charity to beggars ensures Moksha in the next world. The social conscience deveolped from such an article of faith has been the main cause of the increase in the number of beggars. They are always sure of finding people anxious to go to heaven by offering doles and donations to the needy and so they are thriving. There are many beggars whose profession has been hereditary – a strange perversion of human nature, which, as we are told, ought to eat out of the sweat of its brow. The most amusing spectacle from the point of view of reason, is to see able-bodied persons, dressed in abundance of rags and many coloured clothes wandering about the streets and going from house to house regularly at certain hours for no more serious a purpose than that of begging ! This might be seen at almost any village and town in our country. For ages uncounted this thing has been going on. The ignorant masses have a fear of the curse supposed to emanate from the mouths of angered beggars, and thus the beggars get more than they need. In fact, strange as it might seem, a considerable number of these beggars are richer . than their poor patrons !

With the percolation of social consciousness among the modern educated Indians, the problem of beggars is today being seriously thought about and ways and means are being seriously mooted on how to solve this problem. When we read how in the West, for example, begging has become a crime coming under the vagrancy acts of Parliaments and when we know that in some countries people are warned that “Those who do not work, neither shall they eat”, we begin to think how depressing is the situation in India. Poverty, no doubt, is one of the major causes of begging, and unemployment and increase in population have also been responsible for the same, but the disease-of begging has deeper roots in the social consciousness of us all, and it is to this that any reformer has to turn. We must make it clear to the masses that there is no special glory of Punya in giving charity to the able-bodied persons, and that such misplaced charity is only increasing idleness and chronic poverty. If the masses are educated in social science, its elementary principles at any rate, there will be a gradual lessening of the number of beggars in our country.

The State, too, has to devise laws for checking the growth of beggars. Some strict laws against vagrants must be put into practice in every city and village in India. It is more important to introduce them in holy cities where the beggars are leading the most unholy life. Finally, it is for the development of saner outlook on life that we must agitate if we are to root out this evil of beggary. In one form or another, begging has become the most widespread thing today. Some are honourable, modernised beggars in pants and boots and ties and they have subtler ways of exploiting their patron victims.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
abhor, alter, determine, dwell, fellow, handle, innocent, slay, torrent, radiant.
(i) He is making a ………………… effort to succeed in the examination.
(ii) We should hold corruption in …………………. .
(iii) He ………………….. in a rented house in Delhi last year.
(iv) There is no ………………… in this, town; it is the same as it was five years ago.
(v) He deserves praise ………………. for the situation tactfully.
(vi) We love children for their ………………. .
(vii) The crops have been damaged by these …………… rains.
(viii) The rich man has been ………………. by the militants.
(ix) The …………….. of his face suggests that he is a saint.
(x) He has been awarded a ……………… for studying in Canada.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb :
favour, meet, occasion, sound, support. 10

(c) Do as directed : 5
(i) A stranger said to me, “Do you know me ?”
(Change into the Indirect form of Narration.)
(ii) He is blind …………… his own faults.

(Use the correct preposition.)
(iii) Are you not making a noise ?
(Write it in the passive voice.)
(iv) Is virtue not its own reward ?

(Transform into an assertive sentence.)
(v) God is present everywhere.
(Substitute a single word for “present everywhere”.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) If you will run, you will catch the train.
(ii) I am too glad to help you.
(iii) I am fed up of his evil ways.
(iv) He has only two brother-in-laws.
(v) I am one of those persons who cannot describe what I feel.
(vi) He has not bought some books.
(vii) Do not prevent the child to read.
(viii) I doubt that she will help you.
(ix) Ganges is a holy river.
(x) He is more intelligent than either of his four brothers.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that you think is appropriate : 10
(i) He is an ……………… mechanic.
(ingenuous / ingenious)
(ii) He died after he had been struck by ……………… .
(lightning / lightening)
(iii) Your story is not at all ………………. .
(credulous / credible)
(iv) Only the virtuous experience true …………….. .
(facility / felicity)
(v) Some politicians try to influence the …………… officers.
(judicious / judicial)
(vi) You cannot question his honesty and …………….. .
(veracity / voracity)
(vii) The patient is still in a state of …………….. .
(comma / coma)
(viii) After the accident, the field was covered with …………….. .
(corpses / corps)
(ix) He is a dealer in ……………….. .
(stationary / stationery)
(x) You should settle this dispute in an …………….. way.
(amiable / amicable)

(c) Use the following phrases/idiomatic expressions in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
give rise to, hang fire, pass away, put up with, tone down.

1998

INSTRUCTIONS
Candidates should attempt all questions.
The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.
Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on- any one of the following : 100

(a) The Limits of Science
(b) Our Intellectuals
(c) Have We Lost the Direction ?
(d) Computers in Everyday Life
(e) Below the Poverty Line
Q. 2. Read this passage carefully and answer the questions set at the end 75
We think of the moon as only a stone, a stone gone cold. An airless, waterless stone and the prophetic image of our own earth when, some few million years from now, the senescent sun shall have lost its present fostering power . …. And so on. This passage could easily be prolonged – a Study in Purple. But I forbear. Let every reader lay on as much of the royal rhetorical colour as he finds to his taste. Anyhow, purple or no purple, there the stone is – stony. You cannot think about it for long without finding yourself invaded by one or other of several sentiments. These sentiments belong to one or other of two contrasted and complementary groups. The name of the first family is Sentiments of Human Insignificance, of the second, Sentiments of Human Greatness. Meditating on that derelict stone afloat there in the abyss, you may feel a worm,. abject and futile in the face of wholly incomprehensible immensities. ‘The silence of those infinite spaces frightens. me.’ You may feel as Pascal felt. Or, alternatively, you may feel as M. Paul Valery has said: `The silence of those infinite spaces does not frighten me.’
For the spectacle of that moon need not necessarily make you feel like a worm. It may, on the contrary, cause you to rejoice exultantly in your manhood. There floats the stone, the nearest and most familiar symbol of all the astronomical horrors: but the astronomers who discovered those horrors of space and time were men. The universe throws down a challenge to the human spirit; in spite of his insignificance and abjection, man has taken it up. The stone glares down at us out of the black boundlessness. But the fact that we know it justifies us in feeling a certain human pride. We have a right to our moods of sober exultation.

(a) How does the writer describe the moon ?
(b) Do you think that the image of the moon revealed here is prophetic ? Why ?
(c) What kind of two contrasted and complementary sentiments does the moon evoke ?
(d) What does the author try to suggest about the place of man in the universe ?
(e) Give the central idea of the passage. Q. 3. Write a precis of the passage given below in your own words, not exceeding 160, on the special sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in the precis.
N.B. : Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. 75
I speak of peace because of the new face of war. Total war makes no sense in an age when great powers can maintain large and relatively invulnerable nuclear forces and refuse to surrender without resort to those forces. It makes no sense in an age when a single nuclear weapon contains almost ten times the explosive force delivered by all of the Allied air forces in the Second World War. It makes no sense in an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by the wind and water and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn.
Today the expenditure of billions of dollars every year on weapons acquired for the purpose of making sure we never need to use them is essential to keeping the peace. But surely the acquisition of such idle stockpiles, which can only destroy and never create, is not the only, much less the most efficient, means of assuring peace.

I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men. I realize that the pursuit of peace is not as dramatic as the pursuit of war, and frequently the words of the pursuer fall on deaf ears. But we have no more urgent task.

Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world disarmament, and that it will be useless until the leaders of those nations, perceived to be hostile by us, adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them do it. But I also believe that we must re-examine our own attitude, as individuals and as a nation, for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward, by examining his own attitude toward the possibilities of peace.

First, let us examine our attitude toward peace itself. Too many of us think it is impossible. Too many think it unreal. But that is a dangerous, defeatist belief. It leads to the conclusion that war is inevitable, that mankind is doomed, that we are gripped by forces we cannot control.
Our problems are man-made: therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants. No problem of human destiny is beyond human beings. Man’s reason and spirit have often solved the seemingly unsolvable and we believe they can do it again.

Let us focus on a more practical, more attainable peace, based not on a sudden revolution in human nature but on a gradual evolution in human institutions, on a series of concrete actions and effective agreements which are in the interest of all concerned. There is no single, simple key to this peace, no grand or magic formula to be adopted by one or two powers. Genuine peace must be the product of many nations, the sum of many acts. It must be dynamic, not static, changing to meet the challenge of each new generation. For peace is a process, a way of solving problems.

With such a peace there will still be quarrels and conflicting interests, as there are within families and nations. World peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbour; it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance, submitting their disputes to a just and peaceful settlement. And history teaches us that enmities between nations, as between individuals, do not last forever. However fixed our likes and dislikes may seem, the tide of time and events will often bring surprising changes in the relations between nations and neighbours.

So let us persevere. Peace need not be impracticable, and war need not be inevitable. By defining our goal more clearly, by making it seem more manageable and less remote, we can help all peoples to see it, to draw hope from it, and to move irresistibly toward it.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of words given below : 10
deter, increase, ardour, resolve, courage, divide, prestige, commend, pious, invoke
(i) Paradise Lost opens with an ………………. of the divine.
(ii) When is your next ……………… due ?
(iii) One must have a firm ………………. to achieve one’s goal.
(iv) Unless we are ……………… we can never face obstacles.
(v) Will our nuclear explosions have quite a ……………… effect ?
(vi) United we stand, ……………… we fall.
(vii) The programme of rehabilitation is …………………. .
(viii) Without ……………… religious pursuit has hardly any meaning.
(x) In Gandhian era the people of our country had ……………… spirit of patriotism.
(x) This school is a very ……………….. institution.

(b) Use the following words in your own sentences, each both as a noun and a verb : 10
practice; question; complement; substitute; crop.

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed : 5
(i) “Help me Cassius, or l die,” cried Caesar.
(Turn it into the indirect form.)
(ii) John in brighter than all other students in his class.
(Change into the positive degree.)
(iii) You cannot see him, for it is not easy to reach him.
(Give one word for the words in bold italics.)
(iv) She would not go home during the holidays
(Use a question tag.)
(v) If you do not work hard, you cannot succeed.
(Use ‘unless’.)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) It is an unique privilege to welcome our guests.
(ii) A herd of cattles were grazing in the farm.
(iii) If you would have studied hard, you should have passed.
(iv) One of my friend is a good poet.
(v) Either his parents or Pheroze is going to come today.
(vi) When you are going to London to meet with your friends there ?
(vii) For heaven’s sake, please don’t ask me that why am I not coming ?
(viii) I cannot be able to play cricket this evening.
(ix) You are the teacher here, isn’t it ?
(x) Shakespeare, the playwright and the poet born in Stratford-upon-Avon.

(b) Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate words put within the brackets : 10
(i) He …………… his past statement in the course of his speech.
(avert, advert)
(ii) In their response to the call they are ………………… .
(invert, inert)
(iii) There is no ………………. to the gift he received.
(illusion, allusion)
(iv) ………………. distillation is an offence.
(Elicit, Illicit)
(v) He had no ………………….. to any help.
(recourse, resource)
(vi) He is certainly not honest; he is always ……………….. .
(hypercritical, hypocritical)
(vii) Smoking is ………………. here.
(proscribed, prescribed)
(viii) Kishore sends his …………………….. to you.
(compliments, complements)
(ix) We must not cast any …………….. at him, for he is innocent.
(aspiration, aspersion)
(x) The students’ attitude to their teacher is not ………………. .
(deferential, differential)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences bringing out the meaning : 5
(i) Out of tune
(ii) To put one’s foot down
(iii) At sixes and sevens
(iv) Through thick and thin
(v) To put something up

1999

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100

(a) Power of the press
(b) An ideal college
(c) The technological miracles of the twentieth century
(d) An encounter with an astrologer
(e) “Cowards die many times before their death”.

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer in your own language the questions that follow : 75
Forecasting the weather, or trying to find out what it will be like in several day’s time, has always been a difficult business. Many different things affect the weather and each one has to be carefully studied before we can make even a fairly accurate forecast. The ancient Egyptians, of course, had no need of this- the weather in the Nile valley hardly ever changes -but people living farther north had to protect themselves and their crops. During a period of drought, when no rain fell for weeks on end, streams and rivers dried up, cattle died from thirst and crops were ruined. A storm could wreck ships and houses, and heavy falls of rain caused rivers to flood a whole countryside. Action in the sky stirred man into action, and in this respect farmers became just as much men of action as were sailors on the high seas. Both had to reckon with the weather – it often upset their plans, sometimes with disastrous results.

In early times, when there were no instruments such as thermometer or barometer, man looked for tell-tale signs in the sky. He made his forecasts by watching the flights of birds or the way smoke rose from a fire. He thought that the moon controlled the weather – that it held a lot of water, especially when as a crescent or sickle-shaped moon it lay on its back. Even today there are people who think that the sight of the moon lying on its back means that the rain is on its way. Many of the weather-sayings are still heard today. I expect you know the one : ‘A red sky at night is the shepherd’s delight. A red sky in the morning is the shepherd’s warning.’ Do you believe this ? It’s sometimes right but more often wrong. If this and hundreds of other sayings like it were true, there would be no need for weather science or meteorology.

(a) What is drought and what are its consequences?
(b) Does the writer endorse the popular sayings about the red sky ?
(c) Is weather forecasting a science; if so, what is it called ?
(d) Why is it not easy to forecast the weather ?
(e) How would the moon help the people in forecasting weather ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis sheets should be fastened securely inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
N.B. Marks will be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length.
Karl Marx was no gentle dreamer about a better life. such as the Utopian socialists have been. He was a fighter. As he examined the relations between the capitalists and labourers of the world, his belief became clearer and sharper, until at last he was sure that he was dealing with a new science – the science of the means of production. He was sure that his ideas were not dreams but solid scientific facts, and he therefore referred to himself as a scientific socialist, so that people would not confuse him with the Utopians.

Marx and a friend named Friedrich Engels were in France during the revolution of 1848, and it was at this time they published a pamphlet called The Communist Manifesto. This was a call to battle for the labouring classes of the world: “Workers of the world, arise: you have nothing to lose but your chains.” The last years of Marx were spent in England writing his book Das Kapital (‘Capital’). Engels supported Marx and completed the work when the latter died, leaving the book unfinished.

Das Kapital is one of the most important books ever written. In it Marx expressed some astonishing and radical ideas. According to his economic theory, all the wealth in the world is produced by human labour. This is true of not only the goods turned out by factories and of the money received for such goods, but is true as well of the factories themselves, which were also built by human toil, and therefore represent a type of frozen and stored up labour. It is the workers, said Marx, rather than the capitalists, who have supplied this labour, and therefore the wealth should belong to them. They do not receive it, but are paid instead only a small fee for their efforts. The great difference between what the workers produce and what they are paid is surplus wealth, which goes to the owners of the factory, when it should go to the workers. Hence the workers are being exploited, or robbed, and the capitalists are growing wealthy. So said Marx.
Das Kapital also included Marx’s philosophy of history. According to this theory, in every age the social class that controls the source of wealth also controls the government and has power over the people. There is, however, a considerable overlapping. As the sources of wealth change, the, old group in power tends to hang on to its control of the government. For example, the nobles of the Middle Ages owned the land which was the key source of wealth at that time, and they also controlled the government.
With the coming of factories as the chief producers of wealth, the nobles retained their control of the various governments of Europe for many years. Finally, the businessmen, or capitalists, who controlled the new source of wealth gained control of the government. They still control it, said Marx, but it is an unfair situation, and will not continue. In time, the workers, who really produce the wealth, will get the power. As wealth piles up, the factories and other means of production will fall into fewer and fewer hands as the rich grow steadily richer. The poor, at the same time, will grow steadily poorer and more numerous until at last a point will be reached is which almost everybody will be living in misery to support a few fabulously wealthy individuals.
This situation will be so intolerable and so ridiculous that the great masses of the workers will rise up, take industry away from its owners, and run it for the benefit of the workers.

We now know that many of Karl Marx’s ideas were wrong, and that many of his predictions have not come true. Wealth has become more widely distributed rather than less, and the standard of living of the workers has gone up rather than down. Capitalists have proved not to be the evil ogres that Mary pictured them. Nevertheless, the ideas of Karl Marx have had a strong appeal for many people and a profound effect upon the history of the world. Communism. one of the greatest forces in the twentieth century, had its origins in the writings of Karl Marx.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
stay; reality; health; pertinent; proof; post; stretched; accident; rouse; provision
(i) I am not his ………………. brother.
(ii) He got up with a ……………… and a yawn.
(iii) Keep him …………….. with the latest news about his mother.
(iv) He fell into the gorge ………………… .
(v) I have sold off my farm-house and the land ………………….. to it.
(vi) Demagogues try ………………. the masses.
(vii) The new typist ……………….. to be useless.
(viii) I will go …………………. that my expenses are paid.
(ix) ……………… you have forgotten one thing.
(x) Had you taken the medicine, the wound …………………… by now.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb : 10
(i) dog
(ii) freeze
(iii) spoon
(iv) book
(v) refuse

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) Einstein was the greatest scientist of our century.
(Use the comparative degree)
(ii) Let us have a cup of coffee now.
(Use the right tag question)
(iii) She said. “Darling, why are you looking so pale ? Cheer up, please.”
(Change the mode of narration)
(iv) The fact is so evident that it requires no proof.
(Replace ‘so’ by ‘too’)
(v) He has to do his job well. (Change the voice)
Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) You are a mechanic; isn’t it ?
(ii) I have already availed of all the casual leave due to me.
(iii) The health of my brother is better than me.
(iv) He insisted to leave immediately.
(v) She congratulated him for his success.
(vi) The choice lies between honour or dishonour.
(vii) If it will rain, we shall stay back.
(viii) The ship was drowned in the sea.
(ix) By studying hard, his grades improved.
(x) I have to give my examination in April.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one that, you think, is appropriate to fill in the blanks : 10
(i) The book has been ………………. for the Indian readership.
(adapted; adopted)
(ii) The case has been hanging fire because the judge is …………….. .
(disinterested; uninterested)
(iii) Trespassers will be ……………….. .
(persecuted; prosecuted)
(iv) He is a man of ……………… .
(principal; principle)
(v) Justice should be ……………. with mercy.
(tampered; tempered)
(vi) The condition of homeless people becomes ……………….. in winter.
(pitiful; pitiable)
(vii) He led a ……………. life.
(sensuous; sensual)
(viii) I vowed to …………… myself for the death of my cousin.
(avenge; revenge)
(ix) I have ……………. him a job in our company.
(assured; ensured)
(x) Aren’t you tired of this ……………… rain ?
(continual; continuous)

(c) Use the following phrases in your own sentences so as to bring out their meanings : 5
(i) to lead by the nose
(ii) pell- mell
(iii) gift of the gab
(iv) to make a dash
(v) to fish in troubled waters

2000

Answers must be written in English.
Q. 1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following : 100
(a) Man is saved not by faith but by work
(b) Indian Culture
(c) Contribution of Science to human progress
(d) Political reform you want in India
(e) Laughter is the best medicine

Q. 2. Read the following passage and answer, in your own words, the questions that follow : 5 x 15 = 75
Two important stages came not so long before the dawn of written history. The first was the domestication of animals; the second was agriculture. Agriculture, which began in the river valleys of Egypt and Mesopotamia, was a step in human progress to which subsequently there was nothing comparable until our own machine age. Agriculture made possible an immense increase in the numbers of the human species in the regions where it could be successfully practised but at first these regions were few. These were in fact, only those in which nature fertilised the soil after each harvest. Agriculture met with violent resistance, analogous to that which our Ruskins and Samuel Butlers offered to machines. Pastoral nomads considered themselves vastly superior to the tame folk who stayed in one place and were enslaved to the soil. But although the nomads repeatedly won military victories, the physical comforts which the upper classes derived from agricultural serfs always prevailed in the end, and the area of agriculture gradually increased. Even now this process is not at an end, but what remains for it to achieve is no longer very important.

The only fundamental technical advance that preceded the emergence of man into recorded history was the invention of writing. Writing, like spoken language, developed gradually. It developed out of pictures, but as soon as it had reached a certain stage. it made possible the keeping of records and the transmission of information to people who were not present when the information was given.
(a) What was he second important stage in our pre-history and where did it begin?
(b) What happened in the regions where agriculture was successful ?
(c) What happened in the conflict between the nomads and agriculturists?
(d) What technical advance took place before the period of recorded history and what did it accomplish?
(e) Who considered themselves superior to whom and why ?

Q. 3. Make a precis of the following passage, in your own language, in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided Marks will be deducted for precis not written on the precis-sheets. Marks will also be deducted if your precis is much longer or shorter that the prescribed length. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your precis. 75
It has been estimated than the human population of 600 B.C. was about five million people, taking perhaps one million years to get there from two and a half million. The population did not reach 500 million until almost 8,000 years later-about 1650 A.D. This means it doubled roughly once every thousand years or so. It reached a billion people around 1850, doubling in some 200 years. It took on1y 80 years or so for the next doubling, as the population reached two billion around 1930. We have not completed the next doubling to four billion yet, but we now have well over three billion people. The doubling time at present seems to be about 37 years. Quite a reduction in doubling times: 1,000,000 years, 1,000 years, 200 years, 80 years, 37 years.

One of the most ominous facts of the current situation is that roughly 40% of the population of the undeveloped world is made up of people under 15 years old. As that mass of young people moves into its reproductive years during the next decade, we’re going to see the greatest baby boom of all time. Those youngsters are the reason for all the ominous predictions for the year 2000. They are the gun-powder for the population explosion.

How did we get into this bind ? It all happened along time ago, and the story involves the process of natural selection, the development of culture, and mans swollen head. The essence of success in evolution is reproduction …. for reproduction is the key to winning the evolutionary game. Any structure. physiological process or pattern of behaviour that leads to greater reproductive success will tend to be perpetuated. The entire process by which man developed involves thousands of millenia of our ancestors being more successful breeders than their relatives. Facet number one of our bind-the urge to reproduce has been fixed in us by billions of years of evolution.

Of course through all those years of evolution. our ancestors were fighting a continual battle to keep the birth rate ahead of the death rate. That they were successful is attested to by our very existence, for, if the death rate had overtaken the birth rate for any substantial period of time, the evolutionary line leading to man would have gone extinct. Among our apelike ancestors, a few million years ago, it was still very difficult for a mother to rear her children successfully. Most of the offspring died before they reached reproductive age. The death rate was near the birth rate. Then another factor entered the picture – cultural evolution was added to biological evolution.

Of course, in the early days the whole system did not prevent a very high mortality among the young, as well as among the older members of the group. Hunting and food-gathering is a risky business. Cavemen had to throve very impressive cave bears out of their caves before the men could move in. Witch doctors and shamans had a less than perfect record at treating wounds and curing disease. Life was short, if not sweet. Man’s total population size doubtless increased slowly but steadily as human populations expanded out of the African cradle of our species.

Then about 8,000 years ago a major change occurred – the agricultural revolution. People began to give up hunting food and settled down to grow it. Suddenly some of the risk was removed from life. The chances of dying of starvation diminished greatly in some human groups. Other threats associated with the nomadic life were also reduced, perhaps balanced by new threats of disease and large scale warfare associated with the development of cities. But the overall result was a more secure existence than before and the human population grew more rapidly. Around 1800, when the standard of living in what are today the developed countries was dramatically increasing due to industrialization, population growth really began to accelerate. The development of medical science was the straw that broke the camel’s back.

Q. 4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below : 10
characterize; coagulant; fright; globe; civilized;
disastrous; move; enthusiasm; pessimistic; philosophizing
(i) The ————- of clouds leads to changes in the weather.
(ii) Man’s continuance on earth is shrouded in ———– .
(iii) A cosmic ————– may end life on earth.
(iv) Vitamin K is essential for the ———— of blood.
(v) Is our ———- going on the right path
(vi) The economic. ———- of our country is changing.
(vii) Once in the jungle, the boys were ————– .
(viii) What does Indian ————- teach?
(ix) —————- is affecting India’s economy.
(x) He spoke ———— about the existence of God.

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb. 10
(i) hunt
(ii) wound
(iii) discredit
(iv) team
(v) experience

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed parenthetically : 5
(i) “Shut the door after you,” she told him curtly.
(Change into indirect form)
(ii) Did she commit all the mistakes ?
(Change into passive voice)
(iii) Many difficulties are impossible to overcome.
(Use a single word for the underlined phrase)
(iv) Hard as he tried, the old man failed to find a buyer for his bicycle.
(Use “though”)
(v) She is so good that others cannot beat her.
(Replace “so” by “too”)

Q. 5. (a) Correct the following sentences : 10
(i) She vividly described about the situation.
(ii) He chose only such men for his company whom he could trust.
(iii) He does not boast his-merits.
(iv) The rich lead a luxuriant life.
(v) The work was hard and exhaustive.
(vi) Sages had prophecied the coming of the prophet.
(vii) Earth may again be hit by a huge meteor.
(viii) He came to the city with a view to get a job.
(ix) He was angry upon me.
(x) Why she is doing this ?

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to till in the blanks : 10
(i) She has the ——————- to this property.
(wright ; right)
(ii) He has ——————- his own method for doing the work.
(devised ; deviced)
(iii) Fetch me a ——————- of water.
(pale ; pail)
(iv) All the ————— of the airline were grounded.
(aircraft ; aircrafts)
(v) The government has selected the ——————— for the hospital.
(site ; cite)
(vi) The ——————- of Kargil have fallen silent.
(canons ; cannons)
(vii) The tropic of ——————— is an imaginary line.
(Cancer ; cancer)
(viii) The budget —————— could not be offset.
(deficit ; deficiency)
(ix) When they came down the hill the ——————- was steep.
(descent ; decent)
(x) The government collapsed when there was a ————– in the party.
(fraction ; faction)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning : 5
(i) bring about
(ii) break in
(iii) heart and soul
(iv) lie low
(v) hold one’s breath

2001

1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)
(a) Knowledge is power
(b) Consequences of globalization
(c) Value of yoga
(d) Science and human happiness
(e) Tourism in India

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The world we live in presents an endless variety of fascinating problems which excite our wonder and curiosity. The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment. Such questions as ‘What, ‘How’, ‘Where’ and ‘When’ challenge him to find the clues that may suggest possible replies. Confronted by the many problems presented by, let us say, an active volcano, we may ask ‘What are the lavas made of? How does the volcano work and how Is the heat generated? Where do the lavas and gases come from? When did the volcano first begin to erupt and when is it likely to erupt again?

In terms of chemical compounds and elements, the question ‘How’ refers to processes — the way things are made or happen or change. The ancients regarded natural processes as manifestations of energy acting on or through matter. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes no longer reflect the erratic behaviour of the gods of the underworld; they arise from the action of the earth’s internal heat on and through the surrounding crust. The source of the energy lies in the material of inner earth. In many directions, of course, our knowledge is still incomplete, only the first of the questions we have asked about volcanoes, for example, can as yet be satisfactorily answered. The point is not that we now pretend to understand everything but that we have faith in the orderliness of natural processes. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation, we have come to believe that Nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

(a) How does the author describe the task of the scientific worker?
(b) Why does the author speak about volcanoes?
(c) What does the equation ‘How’ refer to?
(d) How did the ancients look upon volcanoes and earthquakes?
(e) What does the author say about our knowledge of the world?

3. Make a précis of the following passage, in your own words, in about 230 words, on the special
précis-sheets provided. Marks will be deducted for précis not written on the précis sheets. Marks will
also be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. The précissheets
should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your précis. (75)

No amount of improvement and reconstruction in education will bear much fruit if our schools and colleges are undermined by indiscipline. An impartial examination makes it clear that students and teachers alike need more of the spirit of discipline. If proper education is to be given, acts of indiscipline prevalent in our educational institutions have to be checked. Indiscipline may take the shape of group indiscipline or individual indiscipline. Group indiscipline is the worse of the two. While as individuals many of our students are as good as students elsewhere, the tendency to group indiscipline has increased in recent years. Many causes have led to this group indiscipline. For various reasons under a foreign regime, acts of indiscipline became frequent, often necessitated by the political activities, which were launched against a foreign government. While there may have been justification for such indiscipline under different political circumstances, we feel that there is no justification on for such acts of indiscipline after the attainment of independence. The democratic constitution which the country has adopted permits the redressing of grievances through democratic machinery. It would be against all principles of democracy if such acts of indiscipline were to continue.

The real purpose of education is to train youth to discharge the duties of citizenship properly. All other objectives are incidental. Discipline, therefore, should be the responsibility of parents, teachers, the general public and the authorities concerned. There are some positive factors promoting discipline. The Indian student’s natural tendency is to be disciplined. It is only when forces act strongly on him that he may sometimes be led astray. He appreciates rules and is normally inclined to abide by them. Much can be done to encourage this trend in school and college life. Personal contact between teacher and pupil is essential. Emphasis is also to be laid on the role of the class teacher or tutorial guide in promoting general discipline and the welfare of the pupils. Further a greater responsibility should devolve upon the students themselves in the maintenance of discipline. Nothing is more calculated to develop a proper sense of self-discipline and proper behaviour than their enforcement, not by any outside authority with any symbol of punishment but by the students themselves. They should choose their own representatives to see that proper codes of conduct are observed.

Another important method of bringing home to pupils the value of discipline is through group games. It is on the playing fields that the virtue of playing the game for its own sake and the team spirit can be cultivated. Such extracurricular activities as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, the National Cadet Corps, Junior Red Cross and Social Service activities will promote a proper spirit of discipline. The building up of a truly harmonious and united form of community life should be the endeavour of all progressive educational institutions.

Besides these positive factors, certain negative factors also promote discipline. The discipline of the youth of any country depends upon the discipline that is exercised by the elders. It is a well – known fact that in all democracies election time is a time offeverish activity not always conducted in the most healthy spirit, and the utilization by politicians of immature minds like students for purposes of electioneering campaigns, with or without slogans attached thereto, is not calculated to promote sound discipline among students. It should be considered an election offence for any member or party to utilize the services of pupils under the age of 17 in political or civic campaigns. Besides, while the educative value of leading politicians addressing our students from time to time may be readily admitted, the tendency often is for the leaders not to speak to the audience before hem but to a wider audience whose attention they wish to attract through the press. It is not  necessary that every speech made by a politician should be a political speech. Lastly, discipline among students can only be promoted if there is discipline among the staff. The teacher and the educational administrator should realize that their activities are all being watched by their pupils. To what extent, therefore, both in their personal conduct and in their general attitude to all problems concerning their country, they have to realize that there are limitations within which they must act for the best interests of education. Ultimately, it is the school or college atmosphere and the quality of the teachers there that ensure proper codes of conduct and discipline among our students.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: 10
Value, offend, strike, jealous, put, grant, disturb, learn, fly, economic
(i) The man …………………. into a rage and tore away his garments.
(ii) A sensible man never takes everything for ………………
(iii) No one seems to have taken ……………….at her manners.
(iv) When are you ………………out to sea again?
(v) I have no mind to trespass upon you ………………..time.
(vi) Try to rise above petty personal …………………
(vii) The officer ………………….through one paragraph and accepted the rest.
(viii) The report I have received is very …………………indeed.
(ix) She has sent her paper to a ………………..journal.
(x) These new measures will give a boost to our ………………………

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: 10
(i) tum
(ii) spell
(iii) part
(iv) contact
(v) meet

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed:
(i) You are too early for the show. (Use “enough”)
(ii) The Mahanadi is not as long as the Gange. (Use the comparative degree)
(iii) Varsha readily complied ……………..my request. (Fill in the gap with a preposition)
(iv) We are sure of his honesty. (Change into a complex sentence)
(v) Santa said, “Don’t open the window.” (Change into the indirect form)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: 10
(i) May 1 now take your leave?
(ii) The soup will taste better if it had more salt in it.
(iii) Is he used to come late everyday?
(iv) Your daughter is twelve years old, isn’t it?
(v) We must be true to our words.
(vi) Datta is living here since 1998.
(vii) A twenty miles walk is really very hard.
(viii) We watched the man to disappear in the woods.
(ix) Kalidas has written Meghadutam.
(x) Let’s have coffee.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks (10)
(i) He seems to be…………….. to hard work. (adverse; averse)
(ii) The building does not ………………..to safety regulations (conform; confirm)
(iii) Asharam was accused of …………the workers against the management. (exciting; inciting)
(iv) Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane…………… (crass; crash)
(v) Gagan uses expensive ………….for his letters. (stationery; stationary)
(vi) The factory was ………………making toys. (seized; ceased)
(vii) Shakil is …………….. at solving difficult crossword puzzles (ingenuous; ingenious)
(viii) I wish you a …………….. recovery (fast; speedy)
(ix) Everybody said that her decision was ………………. (judicious; judicial)
(x) You will have to ………………. your afternoon tea as we have no more sugar.
(forego; forgo)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 5
(i) deal in
(ii) prime of life
(iii) above board
(iv) dwell upon
(v) in full swing

2002

1. Write an essay in about 300 words in any one of the following: (100)
(a) The ways to enrich our regional languages.
(b) Whither Indian democracy today?
(c) Terrorism in India.
(d) Science and Religion.
(e) If I were the Prime Minister of India.

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)
The scientific and technological revolution has brought about fundamental changes in the socio – economic sphere. The use of diesel engine and electricity and the beginning of the application of atomic energy have changed the modes of production. These things have led to the concentration of capital in a few hands. Great enterprises are replacing cottage industries and small firms. The working classes have certainly benefited economically. The miracle of production has necessitated the miracle of consumption. Better amenities are available at a lower cost. A man can buy anything he wants today, if he can only afford. But what kinds of men are needed today for our society? Men who can cooperate in large groups, men whose tasks are standardized, men who feel free and independent and at the same time are willing to fit in the social machine without any friction. Modem man is faced with a sort of moral and spiritual dilemma. The crisis of values yawns before him. Today the old values are in the melting pot, and the new values have not found their foothold. Man has become the automaton he has contrived; he has lost ownership of himself. The discord between the development of positive science on the one hand and the dehumanization of man on the other is the worst crisis of the modem age.

Apart from the economic sphere, the socio-political sphere has not escaped this stratification and the congruent crisis of values. Since the Renaissance, man has been striving for individual rights and self-dignity. But under the present set-up, only two types of men are found — the conditioner and the conditioned. The propaganda offices and the planning bureaus have almost crushed the ‘individual self’, and it has resulted in the rise of the ‘social self. Due to this pressure, the personality fulfillment or its all- round development is denied to many.

(a) What has changed the modes of production today?
(b) What things are being replaced by great enterprise?
(c) What kind of men is needed today for our society?
(d) Why has man become the automation of his own creation?
(e) Is modem man able to attain personality fulfillment?

3. Make a précis of the following passage in your own language in about 230 words, on the special precis-sheets provided. The precis-sheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. Indicate the number of words used by you in your précis.

  1. Instructions
  2. Section-A: 125 Marks
  3. Section-B: 125 Marks
  4. Previous Papers vs. 2015
  5. Essay-list: Topic wise last 23 years (1993-2015)
    1. Economy, Development
    2. Education
    3. Indian Democracy, society, culture, mindset
    4. International issues
    5. Quote based, Philosophy, Ethics
    6. Polity, administration
    7. Science-Technology
    8. Women empowerment
  6. Essaylist: Yearwise Last 23 years (1993-2015)

Instructions

  • On 18th December 2015, UPSC conducted the Essay paper for the civil services mains examination.
  • The essay must be written in the medium authorized in the admission certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this question-cum-answer (QCA) booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than authorized one.
  • Word limit, as specified, should be adhered to.
  • Any page or portion of the page left blank, must be struck off clearly.

Section-A: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

  1. Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole.
  2. Quick but steady wins the race.
  3. Character of an institution is reflected in its leader.
  4. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil.

Section-B: 125 Marks

Write any one of the following essay in 1000-1200 words.

  1. Technology cannot replace manpower.
  2. Crisis faced in India – moral or economic.
  3. Dreams which should not let India sleep.
  4. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth?

Previous Papers vs. 2015

Earlier Papers2015
2014- new trend started: Total 8 essay topics divided equally in two sections and you’ve to write one essay from each sectionSystem continued
2014: section “A” two essays on educationThree essays on ethics/philosophy, and one on education.
2014: section “B” two essays on economy (1) Policy paralysis (2) tourism- next big thing for IndiaTrend continued. Although some of the topics can be classified in two or more ways e.g. Indian crisis- moral or economy = both an essay on ethics as well as on economy.
2014: 6 out of 8 topics ended with “question-mark”, requiring the student to take a stand.Two topics required the student to take a stand
  1. Crisis faced in India: Moral *OR* Economic?
  2. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth (*YES or NO*)?
2014: Leadership / power related Essay: With greater power comes greater responsibility.Trend continues: Character of an institution is reflected in its leader.
2001: The march of science and the erosion of human values.Technology cannot replace manpower.
2002: Modern technological education and human values.Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil
1993: My vision of India in 2001
  • Dreams which should not let India sleep. -2015
  • Perhaps based on the quote by late President Dr. APJ  Kalam who died on 2015, July: “Dream is not that which you see while sleeping it is something that does not let you sleep.”
Since last two years no essay on women (2013,2014)Trend continues for the third year in succession (2015), no essay on women.

Essay-list: Topic wise last 23 years (1993-2015)

Economy, Development

  1. Crisis faced in India – moral or economic. -2015
  2. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth? -2015
  3. Was it the policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of our country? -2014
  4. Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India? -2014
  5. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the right indices for judging the wellbeing of a country-2013
  6. Is the criticism that the ‘Public-Private-Partnership’ (PPP) model for development is more of a bane than a boon in the Indian context, justified ?-2012
  7. Protection of ecology and environment is essential for sustained economic development. -2006
  8. BPO boom in India.   -2007
  9. Globalization would finish small-scale industries in India. -2006
  10. Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993
  11. Ecological considerations need not hamper development. -1993
  12. Multinational corporations – saviours or saboteurs -1994
  13. Special economic zone: boon or bane -2008
  14. Resource management in the Indian context. -1999
  15. Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country? -2010
  16. Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? -2009
  17. The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society. -2009
  18. Urbanization is a blessing in disguise. -1997

Education

  1. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil-2015
  2. Is the growing level of competition good for the youth? -2014
  3. Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress? -2014
  4. Modern technological education and human values. -2002
  5. Credit – based higher education system – status , opportunities and challenges -2011
  6. “Education for all” campaign in India: myth or reality. -2006
  7. Privatization of higher education in India. -2002
  8. Irrelevance of the classroom. -2001
  9. Value-based science and education. -1999
  10. Is an egalitarian society possible by educating the masses ? -2008
  11. Independent thinking should be encouraged right form the childhood. -2007
  12. Restructuring of Indian education system. -1995
  13. Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in education. -1996
  14. What is real education? -2005

Indian Democracy, society, culture, mindset

  1. Dreams which should not let India sleep. -2015
  2. Is sting operation an invasion on privacy? -2014
  3. Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India? -2014
  4. Is the Colonial mentality hindering India’s Success? -2013
  5. In the context of Gandhiji’s views on the matter, explore, on an evolutionary scale, the terms ‘Swadhinata’, ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Dharmarajya’. Critically comment on their contemporary relevance to Indian democracy -2012
  6. Does Indian cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it? -2011
  7. Indian culture today: a myth or a reality? -2000
  8. Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values. -2000
  9. Youth culture today. -1999
  10. Mass media and cultural invasion. -1999
  11. The composite culture of India. -1998
  12. The Indian society at the crossroads. -1994
  13. Geography may remain the same ; history need not. -2010
  14. From traditional Indian philanthropy to the gates-buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift? -2010
  15. Modernisation and westernisation are not identical concepts. -1994
  16. New cults and godmen: a threat to traditional religion -1996
  17. How has satellite television brought about cultural change in Indian mindsets? -2007
  18. ‘ globalization’ vs. ‘ nationalism’ -2009
  19. National identity and patriotism -2008
  20. Responsibility of media in a democracy. -2002
  21. Why should we be proud of being Indians? -2000
  22. True religion cannot be misused. -1997
  23. Globalizations and its impact on Indian culture. -2004

International issues

  1. India’s role in promoting ASEAN co-operation. -2004
  2. The masks of new imperialism. -2003
  3. As civilization advances culture declines. -2003
  4. The implications of globalization for India. -2000
  5. My vision of an ideal world order. -2001
  6. India’s contribution to world wisdom. -1998
  7. The world of the twenty-first century. -1998
  8. Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role. -2010
  9. The global order: political and economic -1993
  10. Importance of Indo-US nuclear agreement -2006
  11. Good fences make good neighbours -2009
  12. Terrorism and world peace -2005
  13. Restructuring of UNO reflect present realities -1996

Quote based, Philosophy, Ethics

  1. Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole. -2015
  2. Quick but steady wins the race. -2015
  3. Character of an institution is reflected in its leader. -2015
  4. With greater power comes greater responsibility. -2014
  5. Words are sharper than the two-edged sword. -2014
  6. Be the change you want to see in others (Gandhi)-2013
  7. Discipline means success, anarchy means ruin -2008
  8. Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man.  -2007
  9. There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. -2003
  10. Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem. -2002
  11. Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the lifeblood of civilisation. -1995
  12. Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds. -1995
  13. Youth is a blunder, manhood a struggle, old age a regret -1994
  14. Useless life is an early death. -1994
  15. He would reigns within himself and folds his passions and desires and fears is more than a king. -1993
  16. Compassion is the basic of all morality would -1993
  17. If youth knew, if age could. -2002
  18. The paths of glory lead but to the grave. -2002
  19. The pursuit of excellence. -2001
  20. Truth is lived, not taught -1996

Polity, administration

  1. Creation of smaller states and the consequent administrative , economic and developmental implication -2011
  2. Evaluation of panchayati raj system in India from the point of view of eradication of power to people.  -2007
  3. Justice must reach the poor -2005
  4. Water resources should be under the control of the central government. -2004
  5. The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India. -1998
  6. The language problem in India: its past, present and prospects. -1998
  7. Reservation, politics and empowerment. -1999
  8. When money speaks, the truth is silent. -1995
  9. How should a civil servant conduct himself? -2003
  10. Politics without ethics is a disaster. -1995
  11. Judicial activism. -1997
  12. The vip cult is a bane of Indian democracy -1996
  13. Need for transparency in public administration -1996
  14. Whither Indian democracy? -1995
  15. Politics, bureaucracy and business – fatal triangle. -1994
  16. How far has democracy in India delivered the goods? -2003
  17. What we have not learnt during fifty years of independence. -1997
  18. My vision of India in 2001 a.d. -1993
  19. In the Indian context , both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism -2011
  20. Is autonomy the best answer to combat balkanization? -2007
  21. The country’s need for a better disaster management system. -2000
  22. Are we a ‘soft ’ state ? -2009
  23. Role of media in good governance -2008
  24. Judicial activism and Indian democracy. -2004
  25. What have we gained from our democratic set-up? -2001
  26. Urbanisation and its hazards -2008
  27. Food security for sustainable national development -2005

Science-Technology

  1. Technology cannot replace manpower. -2015
  2. Science and technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation-2013
  3. Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?-2012
  4. Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution. -1993
  5. The march of science and the erosion of human values. -2001
  6. The modern doctor and his patients. -1997
  7. Increasing computerization would lead to the creation of a dehumanized society. -2006
  8. The cyberworld: its charms and challenges. -2000
  9. The lure of space. -2004
  10. Spirituality and scientific temper. -2003

Women empowerment

  1. Managing work and home – is the Indian working woman getting a fair deal ?-2012
  2. Men have failed: let women take over. -1993
  3. Women’s reservation bill would usher in empowerment for women in India. -2006
  4. The hand that rocks the cradle -2005
  5. If women ruled the world -2005
  6. Whither women’s emancipation? -2004
  7. Empowerment alone cannot help our women. -2001
  8. Women empowerment: challenges and prospects. -1999
  9. Woman is god’s best creation. -1998
  10. Greater political power alone will not improve women’s plight. -1997
  11. The new emerging women power: the ground realities. -1995

Essaylist: Yearwise Last 23 years (1993-2015)

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Click to expand and see last 23 years' essays

2015write one essay from each section
Section-A
  1. Lending hands to someone is better than giving a dole.
  2. Quick but steady wins the race.
  3. Character of an institution is reflected in its leader.
  4. Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make a man more clever devil.

Section-B

  1. Technology cannot replace manpower.
  2. Crisis faced in India – moral or economic.
  3. Dreams which should not let India sleep.
  4. Can capitalism bring inclusive growth?
2014write one essay from each section
Section-A
  1. With greater power comes greater responsibility. -2014
  2. Is the growing level of competition good for the youth? -2014
  3. Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress? -2014
  4. Words are sharper than the two-edged sword. -2014

Section-B

  1. Was it the policy paralysis or the paralysis of implementation which slowed the growth of our country?
  2. Is sting operation an invasion on privacy?
  3. Fifty Golds in Olympics: Can this be a reality for India?
  4. Tourism: Can this be the next big thing for India?
2013
  1. Be the change you want to see in others (Gandhi)
  2. Is the Colonial mentality hindering India’s Success
  3. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) along with GDH (Gross Domestic Happiness) would be the right indices for judging the wellbeing of a country
  4. Science and technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation.
2012
  1. In the context of Gandhiji’s views on the matter, explore, on an evolutionary scale, the terms ‘Swadhinata’, ‘Swaraj’ and ‘Dharmarajya’. Critically comment on their contemporary relevance to Indian democracy.
  2. Is the criticism that the ‘Public-Private-Partnership’ (PPP) model for development is more of a bane than a boon in the Indian context, justified?
  3. Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?
  4. Managing work and home – is the Indian working woman getting a fair deal?
20111. Creation of smaller states and the consequent administrative , economic and developmental implication
2. Does Indian Cinema shape our popular culture or merely reflect it
3. Credit – based higher education system – status , opportunities and challenges
4. In the Indian context , Both human intelligence and technical intelligence are crucial in combating terrorism
20101. Geography may remain the same; history need not.
2. Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the country?
3. Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role.
4. From traditional Indian philanthropy to the Gates-Buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift?
20091. Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death?
2. Are we a ‘Soft ’ state ?
3. “The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society”.
4. “ Good Fences make good neighbors”
5. ‘ Globlisation’ vs. ‘ Nationalism’
20081. Role of Media in good governance
2. National Identity and Patritism
3. Special Economic Zone : Boon or Bane
4. Descipline means success , anarchy means ruin
5. Urbanisation and Its Hazards
6. Is an Egalitarian society possible by educating the masses ?
20071. Independent thinking should be encouraged right form the childhood.
2. Evaluation of Panchayati Raj System in India from the point of view of eradication of power to people.
3. Attitude makes, habit makes character and character makes a man.
4. Is Autonomy the best answer to combat balkanization?
5. How has satellite television brought about cultural change in Indian mindsets.
6. BPO boom in India.
20061. Women’s Reservation Bill Would Usher in Empowerment for Women in India.
2. Protection of Ecology and Environment is Essential for Sustained Economic Development.
3. Importance of Indo-U.S. Nuclear Agreement
4. “Education for All” Campaign in India: Myth or Reality.
5. Globalization Would Finish Small-Scale Industries in India.
6. Increasing Computerization Would lead to the Creation of a Dehumanized Society.
20051. Justice must reach the poor
2. The hand that rocks the cradle
3. If women ruled the world
4. What is real education?
5. Terrorism and world peace
6. Food security for sustainable national development
20041. India’s Role in Promoting ASEAN Co-operation.
2. Judicial Activism and Indian Democracy.
3. Whither Women’s Emancipation?
4. Globalizations and Its Impact on Indian Culture.
5. The Lure of Space.
6. Water Resources Should Be Under the Control of the Central Government.
20031. The Masks of New Imperialism.
2. How far has democracy in India delivered the goods?
3. How should a civil servant conduct himself?
4. As civilization advances culture declines.
5. There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so.
6. Spirituality and Scientific temper.
20021. Modern technological education and human values.
2. Search for truth can only be a spiritual problem.
3. If youth knew, if age could.
4. The paths of glory lead but to the grave.
5. Privatization of higher education in India.
6. Responsibility of media in a democracy.
20011. What have we gained from our democratic set-up?
2. My vision of an ideal world order.
3. The march of science and the erosion of human values.
4. Irrelevance of the classroom.
5. The pursuit of excellence.
6. Empowerment alone cannot help our women.
20001. Why should we be proud of being Indians?
2. The cyberworld: Its charms and challenges.
3. The country’s need for a better disaster management system.
4. Indian culture today: A myth or a reality?
5. The implications of globalization for India.
6. Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values.
19991. Women empowerment: Challenges and prospects.
2. Youth culture today.
3. Mass media and cultural invasion.
4. Resource management in the Indian context.
5. Value-based science and education.
6. Reservation, politics and empowerment.
19981. The composite culture of India.
2. Woman is God’s best creation.
3.The misinterpretation and misuse of freedom in India.
4. India’s contribution to world wisdom.
5. The language problem in India: Its past, present and prospects.
6. The world of the twenty-first century.
19971. What we have not learnt during fifty years of Independence.
2. Judicial activism.
3. Greater political power alone will not improve women’s plight.
4. True religion cannot be misused.
5. The modern doctor and his patients.
6. Urbanization is a blessing in disguise.
19961. Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in education.
2. Restructuring of UNO reflect present realities
3. New cults and Godmen: a threat to traditional religion
4. The VIP cult is a bane of Indian democracy
5. Need for transparency in public administration
6. Truth is lived, not taught
19951. Politics without ethics is a disaster.
2. The new emerging women Power: the ground realities.
3. When money speaks, the truth is silent.
4. Whither Indian democracy?
5. Restructuring of Indian education system.
6. Disinterested intellectual curiosity is the lifeblood of civilisation.
7. Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds.
19941. Youth is a blunder, Manhood a struggle, oldage a regret
2. The Indian society at the crossroads.
3. Modernisation and westernisation are not identical concepts.
4. Useless life is an early death.
5. Politics, bureaucracy and business – Fatal Triangle.
6. Multinational corporations – saviours or saboteurs
19931. My vision of India in 2001 A.D.
2. The global order: political and economic
3. He would reigns within himself and folds his passions and desires and fears is more than a king.
4. Compassion is the basic of all morality would
5. Men have failed: let women take over.
6. Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence.
7. Ecological considerations need not hamper development.
8. Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution.

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