Memento Bibliography

Bibliography - Part 1

Indigenous Traditions and Ecology Bibliography

John Grim
Yale University

Updated by Kimberly Carfore 

Abram, David. Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology. New York and Canada: Vintage Books, 2011.

--------. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World. New York: Vintage, 1997.

Adams, Carol, ed. Ecofeminism and the Sacred. New York: Continuum, 1993.


Albanese, Catherine L. Nature Religion in America: From the Algonkian Indians to the New Age. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Alexiades, Miguel N., ed. Mobility and Migration in Indigenous Amazonia: Contemporary Ethnoecological Perspectives. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2009.


Ali, Saleem H. Mining, the Environment, and Indigenous Development Conflicts. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2009.


Allan, William. The African Husbandman. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.


Alpers, Antony. Maori Myths and Tribal Legends. Auckland, New Zealand: Longman Paul, 1964.


Alvarado, Elvia. Don’t Be Afraid Gringo: A Honduran Gringo Speaks from the Heart: The Story of Elvia Alvarado. Translated by Medea Benjamin. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.


Amlotte, Arthur. “The Call to Remember.” Parabola 17, no. 3 (1992): 29–35.


Amte, Baba. Cry, The Beloved. Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India: Maharogi Sewa Samiti, 1989.


Anderson, E.N. The Pursuit of Ecotopia: Lessons from Indigenous and Traditional Societies for the Human Ecology of our Modern World. Westport, CT: Preager, 2010.


Anderson, E.N., Aurora Dzib Zihum de Cen, Felix Medina Tzuc and Pastor Valdez Chale. Political Ecology in a Yucatec Maya Community. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2005.


Anderson, M. Kat. Tending the Wild: Native American Knowledge and the Management of California’s Natural Resources. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2013.


Anderson, Robert S., and Walter Huber. The Hour of the Fox, Tropical Forest, the World Bank, and Indigenous People in Central India. Seattle, Wash.: University of Washington Press, 1988.


Anthropology Resource Center (ARC). “Transnational Corporations and Indigenous Peoples.” ARC Newsletter 5, no. 3 (1981): 2–7.


Anthwal, Ashish, Ramesh C. Sharma, and Archana Sharma. “Sacred Groves: Traditional Way of Conserving Plant Diversity in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal.” The Journal of American Science 2, no. 2 (2006): 35-38. (  


Apffel-Marglin, Fr_d_rique, and Stephen Marglin, eds. Decolonizing Knowledge: From Development to Dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.


--------.  Dominating Knowledge: Development, Culture, and Resistance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.


Appiah-opoku, Seth. The Need for Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Impact Assessment: The Case of Ghana. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2005.


Associated Press. “Great Whale Project on Cree Land Collapses.” News From Indian Country, no. 23 (1994).


--------. “Ecuador Indians Regain Title to Amazon Forest.” Milwaukee Sentinel, 20 June 1992.


Aug, Lisa. “Humans and the Earth.” Turtle Quarterly 3, no. 2 (1989).


Bagchi, Saugata. “Harming Trees, Hurting Tribals.” Inter Press Service, 18 March 1991.


Baker, Rob. “A Canoe Against the Mainstream: An Interview with Peterson Zah.” Parabola 14, no. 2 (1989): 53–61.


Balée, Dr. William. Cultural Forests of the Amazon: A Historical Ecology of People and Their Landscape. Tuscaloosa, AZ: University of Alabama Press, 2013.


Ball, Martin. "Sacred Mountains, Religious Paradigms, and Identity Among the Mescalero Apache." Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 4, no. 3 (2000): 264-282.

Banerjee, Subhankar, ed. Arctic Voices: Resistance at the Tipping Point. Seven Stories Press: New York, 2012.


Barlow, Cleve. Tikanga Whakaaro: Key Concepts of Maori Culture. Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press, 1991.


Bass, Rick. Caribou Rising: Defending the Porcupine Herd, Gwich-‘in Culture, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 2004.


Basso, Keith H. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.


Beck, Peggy, and Anna Lee Walters. The Sacred: Ways of Knowledge, Sources of Life. Tsaile, Ariz.: Navajo Community College Press, 1977.

Beckerman, Stephen and Roberto Lizarralde. The Ecology of the Barí: Rainforest Horticulturists of Latin America. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2013.


Belcher, Martha, and Angela Gennino, eds. Southeast Asia Rainforests: A Resource Guide and Directory. San Francisco, Calif.: Rainforest Action Network, 1993.


Bell, Diane. Ngarrindjeri Wurruwarrin: A World That Is, Was, and Will Be. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press, 1998.


--------.  “Desperately Seeking Redemption.” Natural History 106, no. 2 (1997): 52–54.


--------.  Daughters of the Dreaming. 2d ed. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.


Bellcourt, Mark Alan. Perception of Native Americans: Indigenous Science and Connections to Ecology. ProQuest / UMI, 2006.


Bellfy, Phil, ed. Honor the Earth: Great Lakes Indigenous Response to Environmental Crisis. Ziibi Press, 2014.


Bennett, Bradley C. “Plants and People of the Amazonian Rainforests: The Role of Ethnobotany in Sustainable Development.” BioScience 42, no. 8 (1992): 599–608.


Berger, Justice Thomas R. A Long and Terrible Shadow: White Values, Native Rights in the Americas since 1492. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1991.


--------.  Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. Vol. 1. Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, 1977.


Berglund, Axel-lvar. Zulu Thought-Patterns and Symbolism. London: Hurst and Co, 1989.


Berkes, Fikret. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, 1999.


Bernbaum, Edwin. “Sacred Mountains.” Parabola 13, no. 4 (1988): 12–18.


Berreman, Gerald D. “Chipko: A Movement to Save the Himalayan Environment and People.” In Contemporary Indian Tradition: Voices on Nature and the Challenge of Change, ed. Carla Borden, 239–66. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Intsitution Press, 1989.


Berry, Thomas. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books, 1998.


--------.  “The Viable Human.” In Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, eds. Michael E. Zimmerman, et al., 171–81. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1993.


Best, Elsdon. Maori Religion and Mythology: Being an Accountant of the Cosmogony Anthropology, Religious Beliefs and Rites, Magic, and Folklore of the Maori Folk of New Zealand. Part 1. Wellington: Government Printer, 1924.


Bierhorst, John. The Way of the Earth: Native America and the Environment. New York: William Morrow, 1994.


Bishop, Charles A. “The Emergence of Hunting Territories Among the Northern Ojibwa.” Ethnology 9, no. 1 (1970): 1–15.


Boas, Franz. Keresan Texts. 2 vols. New York: American Ethnological Society, 1928.


Boff, Leonardo. Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Trans. Philip Berryman. New York: Orbis, 1997.

Boillat, Sébastien. Protective Mountains, Angry Lakes, and Shifting Fields: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Ecosystem Diversity in the Bolivian Andes. Saarbrücken, Germany: Scholars’ Press, 2014.


Bollig, Michael and Schulte, Anja. "Environmental Change and Pastoral Perceptions: Degradation and Indigenous Knowledge in Two African Pastoral Communities." Human Ecology 27, no. 3 (1999): 493-514.


Booth, Annie L., and Harvey M. Jacobs. “Ties That Bind: Native American Beliefs as a Foundation for Environmental Consciousness.” Environmental Ethics 12, no. 1 (1990): 27–44.


Borque, Bruce. The Swordfish Hunters: The History and Ecology of an Ancient American Sea People. Piermont, New Hampshire: Bunker Hill Publishing, 2012.


Brady, Veronica. "Towards an Ecology of Australia: Land of the Spirit." Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 3, no. 2 (1999): 139-155.


Broad, Robin, and John Cavanagh. Plundering Paradise: The Struggle for the Environment in the Philippines. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1993.


Brokensha, David, Dennis Warren, and Oswald Werner, eds. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1980.


Brosted, Jens, et al. Native Power: The Quest for Autonomy and Nationhood of Indigenous Peoples. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.


Brown, Jennifer S. H., and Robert Brightman. The Orders of the Dreamed: George Nelson on Cree and Northern Ojibwa Religion and Myth, 1823. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1988.


Brown, Joseph Epes, ed. The Sacred Pipe: Black Elk’s Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.


Bruchac, Joseph. Native Plant Stories. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1995.


--------. “The Storytelling Seasons.” Parabola 14, no. 2 (1989): 87–93.


Bruun, Ole and Arne Kalland, eds. Asian Perceptions of Nature: A Critical Approach. Richmond, Surrey: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 1995.


Brush, Stephen, and Doreen Stabinsky, eds. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights. Washington D.C.: Island Press, 1996.


Brysk, Alison. “Acting Globally: Indian Rights and International Politics in Latin America.” In Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America, ed. Donna Lee Van Cott, 29–51. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.


Buhner, Stephen Harrod. Sacred Plant Medicine: The Wisdom in Native American Herbalism. Rochester, VT: Bear & Company Publishing, 2006.


Bullard, Robert, ed. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press, 1993.


Burger, Julian. The Gaia Atlas of First Peoples: A Future for the Indigenous World. New York: Anchor, 1990.


--------.  Report from the Frontier: The State of the World’s Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed; Cambridge, Mass.: Cultural Survival, 1987.


Caduto, Michael J. and Joseph Bruchac. Keepers of the Animals: Native American Stories and Wildlife Activities for Children. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1997.


Cairns, Malcom F. ed. Shifting Cultivation and Environmental Change: Indigenous People, Agriculture and Forest Conservation. New York: Routledge, 2015.


--------. Voices from the Forest: Integrating Indigenous Knowledge into Sustainable Upland Farming. Washington, DC: RFF Press, 2007.


Cajete, Gregory. Native Science: Natural Laws of Interdependence. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers, 1999.


--------. Look to the Mountain: An Ecology of Indigenous Education. Durango, Colo.: Kivaki Press, 1994.


Callicott, J. Baird. "Black Elk, 1862-1950." In Fifty Key Thinkers on the Environment, ed. Joy A. Palmer, 147-154. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001.


--------.  “Many Indigenous Worlds or the Indigenous World? A Reply to My ‘Indigenous’ Critics.” Environmental Ethics 22, no. 3 (2000): 291-310.


--------.  Earth’s Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1994.


--------.  “American Indian Land Wisdom? Sorting Out the Issues.” In Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy, eds. J. Baird Callicott and David Edward Shaner, 203–19. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1989.


Callicott, J. Baird and Michael P. Nelson. American Indian Environmental Ethics: An Ojibwa Case Study. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.


Campbell, Joseph. The Way of the Animal Powers: Historical Atlas of World Mythology, vol. 1. New York: A. van der Marck Editions; San Francisco, Calif.: Harper and Row, 1983.

“Campaigns: Keeping Hydro-Quebec at Bay.” The Ecologist 24, no. 2 (1994) 1.

Campos, Don Jose and Geraldine Overton-Wiese, ed. The Shaman & Ayahuasca: Journeys to Sacred Realms. Studio City, CA: Divine Arts, 2011.


Canadian Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. 5 vols. Ottawa, Canada: The Commission, 1996.


Carey, Mark. In the Shadow of Melting Glaciers: Climate Change and Andean Society. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.


Carlson, John B., and Bob Sascha. “America’s Ancient Skywatchers.” National Geographic 177, no. 3 (March 1990): 76–107.


Caruso, Andrea, and Kevin Russell. “Journey to Borneo and the Resistance of the Penan.” Earth First! 12, no. 7 (1992): 14.


Castro, Alfonso Peter and Adelle Tibbetts. "Sacred Landscapes of Kirinyaga: Indigenous and Early Islamic and Christian Influences." In Sacred Landscapes and Cultural Politics: Planting a Tree, eds. Philip P. Arnold and Ann Grodzins Gold, 55­-81. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2001.


Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR). Rights Violations in the Ecuadorian Amazon: The Human Consequences of Oil Development. New York: CESR, 1994.


Centre for Science and Environment. The State of India’s Environment 1984–85: The Second Citizen’s Report. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1985.


Chagnon, Napoleon. Yanomam_: The Fierce People. New York.: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1983.


Chambers, Robert. “Microenvironments Unobserved.” Gatekeeper Series. London: International Institute for Environment and Development, no. 22 (1990): 6–7.


--------.  The Volta Resettlement Experience. London: Pall-Mall Press, 1970.


Chartier, Clem. “Malaysia: Logging Greatest Threat to Indigenous Peoples of Sarawak.” Statement to the UN Working Group on Indigenous Populations. IWGIA Newsletter 51–52 (October/December, 1987): 65–66.


Chatchawan, Tongdeelert, and Larry Lohmann. “The Traditional Muang Faai Irrigation System of Northern Thailand.” The Ecologist 21, no. 2 (1991): 101–106.


Chay, Rigoberto Queme. “The Corn Men Have Not Forgotten Their Ancient Gods.” In Story Earth: Native Voices on the Environment, 19–30. Compiled by Inter Press Service and Gro Harlem Bruntland. San Francisco, Calif.: Mercury House, 1993.


Circles, Lone Wolf. Full Circle: A Song of Ecology and Earthen Spirituality. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn New Times, 1991.


Clarkson, Linda, Vern Morrissette, and Gabriel Regallet. Our Responsibility to the Seventh Generation: Indigenous Peoples and Sustainable Development. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1992.


Cliffe, Lionel. “The Conservation Issue in Zimbabwe.” Review of African Political Economy no. 42 (1988): 48–58.


Clifton, James A., ed. The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1990.


Cohen, David William, and E. S. Atieno Odhiambo. Siaya: The Historical Anthropology of an African Landscape. London: John Currey, 1989.

Coimbra, Carlos E. A. Jr., Nancy M. Flowers, Francisco M. Salzano and Ricardo V. Santos. The Xavante in Transition: Health, Ecology, and Bioanthropology in Central Brazil. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2004.


Colchester, Marcus, and Larry Lohmann, eds. The Struggle for Land and the Fate of the Forests. Penang, Malaysia: World Rainforest Movement, 1993.

Colomeda, Lorelei Anne Lambert. Keepers of the Central Fire: Issues in Ecology for Indigenous Peoples. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishing, 1999.


Conti, Anna. “Capitalist Organization of Production through Non-Capitalist Relations: Women’s Role in a Pilot Resettlement in Upper Volta.” Review of African Political Economy nos. 15–16 (1979): 75–92.

Cormier, Loretta A. Kinship with Monkeys: The Guajá Foragers of Eastern Amazonia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.


Courlander, Harold. The Fourth World of the Hopis. Albuquerque, N. Mex.: University of New Mexico Press, 1987.


Cowan, James. “Aboriginal Solitude.” Parabola 17, no. 1 (1992): 62–68.


Crocker, Jon Christopher. Vital Souls: Bororo Cosmology, Natural Symbolism, and Shamanism. Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, 1985.


Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hifland Wang, 1983.


Cronyn, George W., ed. Introduction by Mary Austin. American Indian Poetry: An Anthology of Songs and Chants. New York: Ballantine, 1991.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.


Dallas Morning News. “Amazon Indian Fights Oil Exploration, Dallas Company Defends Rain Forest Project as Safe.” 27 April 1992, 15A.


Daneel, Martinus L. “The Growth and Significance of Shona Independent Churches.” In Christianity South of the Zambezi, Vol. 2, ed. M. F. C. Bourdillon, 177–92. Gwelo, Rhodesia: Mambo Press, 1977.


Davey-Hiesleitner, Anna. Traditional Ecological Knowledge in West Arnhem Land Australia: The Ecological, Economic and Cultural Potential of Fire Management. Saarbrücken, Germany: AV Akademikerverlag, 2012.


Davis, Mary, ed. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing, 1994.

Davis, Wade. The Wayfinders: Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. Toronto, ON: House of Anansi Press, 2009.


--------. “Vanishing Cultures.” National Geographic 196, no. 2 (1999): 64–76.


--------.  “Death of a People: Logging in the Penan Homeland.” State of the Peoples: A Global Human Rights Report on Societies in Danger, ed. Marc S. Miller, 23–32. Boston: Beacon, 1993.


Day, David. The Whale War. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books, 1987.


Deb, D. and K. C. Malhotra. "Conservation Ethos in Local Traditions: The West Bengal Heritage." Society and Natural Resources 14, no.8 (2001): 711-24.


Delcourt, Paul A. and Hazel R. Delcourt. Prehistoric Native Americans and Ecological Change: Human Ecosystems in Eastern North America since the Pleistocene. New York and UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.


Deloria, Vine Jr. The World We Used to Live In: Remembering the Powers of the Medicine Men. New York: Fulcrum Publishing, 2006.


--------. God is Red: A Native View of Religion. New York: Fulcrum Publishing, 2003.


--------. For This Land: Writings on Religion in America. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Deloria, Vine Jr. and Daniel R. Wildcat. Power and Place: Indian Education in America. New York: Fulcrum Publishing, 2001.


DeLoughrey, Elizabeth and George B. Handley, eds. Postcolonial Ecologies: Literatures of the Environment. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.


Dene Nation. Denendeh: A Dene Celebration. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1984.

Descola, Philippe. The Spears of Twilight: Life and Death in the Amazon Jungle. Translated by Janet Lloyd. New York: New Press/Harper Collins Publishers, 1996.

--------.  “From Scattered to Nucleated Settlement: A Process of Socioeconomic Change Among the Achuar.” In Cultural Transformations and Ethnicity in Modern Ecuador, ed. Norman E. Whitten, Jr., 614–46. Urbana. Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

Descola, Philippe. In the Society of Nature: A Native Ecology in Amazonia. New York and UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.


Descola, Philippe, and Gisli Palsson, eds. Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 1996.

Desmet, Ellen. Indigenous Rights Entwined with Nature Conservation. UK & US: Intersentia, 2011.


Deur, Douglas and Nancy Turner, ed. Keeping it Living: Traditions of Plant Use and Cultivation on the Northwest Coast of North America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2006.


Devall, Bill, and George Sessions. Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered. Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, Inc., 1985.


Devi Khumbongmayum, Ashalata, M. L. Khan, and R. Tripathi, "Sacred Groves of Manipur, Northeast India: Biodiversity Value, Status and Strategies for their Conservation," Biodiversity and Conservation 14, no. 7 (2005): 1541-1582.


Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. Toronto: McClellan and Stewart, 1992.


Dinham, Barbara, and Colin Hines. Agribusiness in Africa. London: Earth Resources, 1982.

Drahos, Peter. Intellectual Property, Indigenous People and their Knowledge. New York and UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014.


Driben, Paul, and Donald J. Auger. The Generation of Power and Fear: The Little Jackfish River Hydroelectric Project and the Whitesands Indian Band. Research Report No. 3. Thunder Bay, Ontario: Lakehead University Centre for Northern Studies, 1989.


Duffin, Stephen J. "The Environmental Views of John Locke and the Maori People of New Zealand." Environmental Ethics 26, no. 4 (2004): 381-401.


Dumont, James. “Journey to Daylight-Land: Through Ojibwa Eyes.” Laurentian University Review 8, no. 2 (1976): 31–44.


Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. Roots of Resistance: A History of Land Tenure in New Mexico. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007.


Duran, Phillip H. The Condor and the Eagle: Uniting Heart and Mind in Search of a New Science Worldview. Rio Rancho, NM: Eaglehouse Publications, 2013.


Durning, Alan. Guardians of the Land: Indigenous Peoples and the Health of the Earth. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute, 1993.


Egan, Kieran. Teaching as Story Telling: An Alternative Approach to Teaching Curriculum in the Elementary School. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1989.


Egan, Kristina. “Forging New Alliances in Ecuador’s Amazon.” SAIS Review 16, no. 2 (1996): 123–42.


Eisen, Peter. “ARCO Wins Second Exploration Block in Ecuador After Two-Year Wait.” The Oil Daily. 48, no. 80 (1998): 1.


Elder, John, and Hertha Wong, eds. Family of the Earth and Sky: Indigenous Tales of Nature from Around the World. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994.


Ellen, Roy, ed. Modern Crises and Traditional Strategies: Local Ecological Knowledge in Island Southeast Asia. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2007.


--------.  Indigenous Environmental Knowledge and its Transformations: Critical Anthropological Perspectives. New York: Routledge, 2000.


Enloe, Cynthia. The Politics of Pollution in Comparative Perspective: Ecology and Power in Four Nations. New York: Longman, 1975.

Ennis-McMillan, Michael. A Precious Liquid: Drinking Water and Culture in the Valley of Mexico. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2005.


Erdoes, Richard, and Alfonso Ortiz. American Indian Myth and Legends. New York: Pantheon, 1984.


Erdrich, Heid E. Original Local: Indigenous Foods, Stories, and Recipes from the Upper Midwest. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2013.


Erhard, Nancie. Review of Indigenous Traditions and Ecology: The Interbeing of Cosmology and Community. Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 7, no. 3 (2003): 348-350.


Esquillo, Ruth. “Community Action on Forest Preservation: The Case of San Fernando, Bukidnon.” Thesis presented to the Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Ateneo De Manilla University, 1992.


Evatt, Elizabeth. Review of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984. Canberra: AGPS, 1996.


Faber, Daniel. Environment Under Fire: Imperialism and the Ecological Crisis in Central America. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1993.

Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012.


Faulstich, Paul. “Hawaiians Fight for the Rainforest.” Earth First! 10, no. 5 (1990): 1, 7.


Fawcett, Melissa Jayne. Medicine Trail: The Life and Lessons of Gladys Tantaquidgeon. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2000.


Fay, Chip, and Jim Barnes. “Mt. Apo Natives in Hot Water” Earth First! 10, no. 1 (1989): 9–10.


Fitzhugh, William W. and Chisato O. Dubreuil, eds. Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People. Asian Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 1999.


Fixico, Donald. The Invasion of Indian Country in the Twentieth Century: American Capitalism and Tribal Natural Resources. Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1998.


Forbes, Jack D. "Indigenous Americans: Spirituality and Ecos." Daedalus 130, no. 4 (2001): 283-300. (


Ford, Daryll C. “A Creation Myth from Acoma.” Folk-Lore 41, no. 4 (1930): 359–87.


Foster, William C. Climate and Culture Change in North America AD 900-1600. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2012.

Fowler, Cynthia. Ignition Stories: Indigenous Fire Ecology in the Indo-Australian Monsoon Zone. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2013.


--------. "The Ecological Implications of Ancestral Religion and Reciprocal Exchange in a Sacred Forest in Karendi (Sumba, Indonesia). Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 7, no. 3 (2003): 303-329.


Francis, Daniel. The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1993.


Frantz, Klaus. Indian Reservations in the United States: Territory, Sovereignty, and Socioeconomic Change. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1999.


Friedmann, John, and Haripriya Rangan, eds. In Defense of Livelihood: Comparative Studies in Environmental Action. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian, 1993.


Gadgil, Madhav, and Ramachandra Guha. This Fissured Land: An Ecological History of India. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1992.


Gaspar, Karl. A People’s Option: To Struggle for Creation. Quezon City, Philippines: Claretian, 1990.

Gedicks, Al. The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles against Multinational Corporations. Boston: South End, 1993.


Gerstin, Julian. “No Condition Permanent: The Rainforests of Africa.” In Lessons of the Rainforest, ed. Suzanne Head and Robert Heinzman, 78–91. San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club, 1990.


Geyshick, Ron, and Judith Doyle. Te Bwe Win (Truth). Toronto: Impulse Editions/Summerhill Press, 1989.

Gifford, Eli, Michael Cook and Warren Jefferson, eds. How Can One Sell the Air?: Chief Seattle’s Vision. Summertown, TN: Native Voices, 2005.


Glave, Dianne D. Rooted in the Earth: Reclaiming the African American Environmental Heritage. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press, 2010.


Gordon, David M. and Shepard Krech III, eds. Indigenous Knowledge and the Environment in Africa and North America. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2014.


Gordon, Greg. “Huanorani Fight Oil Companies.” Earth First! 7, no. 1 (1991): 8.


Gough, Robert P. W. “A Cultural-Historical Assessment of the Wild Rice Resources of the Sokaogon Chippewa.” An Analysis of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts of Mining and Mineral Resource Development on the Sokaogon Chippewa Community. Madison, Wis.: COACT Research, Inc., 1980.


Grim, John A. "Living in a Universe: Native Cosmologies and the Environment." In When Worlds Converge: What Science and Religion Tell Us About the Story of the Universe and Our Place in It, eds. Clifford N. Matthews, Mary Evelyn Tucker, and Philip Hefner, 243-260. Peru, IL: Carus Publishing Company, 2002.


--------.  ed. Indigenous Traditions and Ecology: The Interbeing of Cosmology and Community. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Divinity School, Center for the Study of World Religions, 2001. Distributed by Harvard University Press.


Grim, John A. and Mary Evelyn Tucker. Ecology and Religion. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2014.


Grinde, Donald A., Jr., and Bruce E. Johansen. Ecocide of Native America: Environmental Destruction of Indian Lands and Peoples. Santa Fe, N. Mex.: Clear Light Publishers, 1995.


Grinnel, George Bird. Blackfoot Tales. Lincoln, Nebr.: University of Nebraska Press, 1962.


Grossman, Zoltan and Alan Parker, eds. Asserting Native Resilience: Pacific Rim Indigenous Nations Face the Climate Crisis. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2012.


Grumbine, Edward. Ghost Bears: Exploring the Biodiversity Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1992.


Guha, Ramachandra. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and Peasant Resistance in the Himalaya. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1989.


Guthrie, Daniel. “Primitive Man’s Relationship to Nature.” Bioscience 21 (1971).


Hadjor, Kofi Buenor. Africa in an Era of Crisis. Trenton, N. J.: African World Press, 1990.


Hallman, David G., ed. Ecotheology: Voices from South and North. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1994.


Hallowell, Alfred Irving, and Jennifer S. H. Brown. The Ojibwa of Berens River, Manitoba: Ethnography into History. Fort Worth, Tex.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1992.


--------.  “Ojibwa Ontology: Behaviour and World View.” In Culture and History, ed. Sigmund Diamond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.


Hanbury-Tension, Robin. “No Surrender in Sarawak.” New Scientist 128, no. 1745 (1 December 1990): 28–30.


Hanratty, Dennis Michael. Ecuador: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, 1991.


Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science. London: Routledge, 1989.


Hardiman, David. Peasant Resistance in India: 1858–1914. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Harkin, Michael and David Rich Lewis. Native Americans and the Environment: Perspectives on the Ecological Indian. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.

Harner, Michael. The J’varo: People of the Sacred Waterfalls. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday/Natural History Press, 1972.


Harrison, Paul. The Greening of Africa: Breaking through in the Battle for Land and Food. London: Penguin, 1987.


Harrison, Robert Pogue. Forests: The Shadow of Civilization. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1992.


Harrod, Howard L. The Animals Came Dancing: Native American Sacred Ecology and Animal Kinship. University of Arizona Press, 2001.


--------. The Animals Came Dancing: Native American Sacred Ecology and Animal Kinship. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2000.


Harvey, Graham. Animism: Respecting the Living World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.


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Click here for Bibliography - Part 2.



Memento is a 2000 American neo-noirpsychological thriller film written and directed by Christopher Nolan, and produced by Suzanne and Jennifer Todd. The film's script was based on a pitch by Jonathan Nolan, who later wrote the story "Memento Mori" from the concept. It stars Guy Pearce, Carrie-Anne Moss, and Joe Pantoliano.

Pearce stars as a man who, as a result of a past trauma, suffers from anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories) and suffers short-term memory loss approximately every five minutes. He is searching for the persons who attacked him and killed his wife, using an intricate system of Polaroid photographs and tattoos to track information he cannot remember. Memento is presented as two different sequences of scenes interspersed during the film: a series in black-and-white that is shown chronologically, and a series of color sequences shown in reverse order (simulating for the audience the mental state of the protagonist). The two sequences meet at the end of the film, producing one complete and cohesive narrative.[4]

Memento premiered on September 5, 2000, at the Venice International Film Festival and was released in European theaters starting in October. It became a blockbuster success, being acclaimed by critics who praised its nonlinear narrative structure and motifs of memory, perception, grief, and self-deception, and earning $39.7 million over a $9 million budget. It received numerous accolades, including Academy Award nominations for Best Original Screenplay and Best Film Editing.[5] The film was subsequently ranked one of the best films of the 2000s by several critics and media outlets.[6]Memento was considered "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant by the US Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2017.[7]


The film starts with the Polaroid photograph of a dead man. As the sequence plays backwards the photo reverts to its undeveloped state, entering the camera before the man is shot in the head. The film then continues, alternating between black and white and color sequences.

The black and white sequences begin with Leonard Shelby, an insurance investigator, in a motel room speaking to an unseen and unknown caller. Leonard has anterograde amnesia and is unable to store recent memories, the result of an attack by two men. Leonard explains that he killed the attacker who raped and strangled his wife, but a second clubbed him and escaped. The police did not accept that there was a second attacker, but Leonard believes the attacker's name is John or James, with a last name starting with G. So, Leonard conducts his own investigation using a convoluted system of notes, Polaroid photos, and tattoos. From his occupation in the insurance industry, Leonard recalls a fellow anterograde amnesiac, Sammy Jankis. Sammy's diabetic wife, who wasn't sure if his condition was genuine, repeatedly requested Sammy's assistance with her insulin shots; she hoped he would remember having already given her an injection and would stop himself from giving her another before she died of an overdose. However, Sammy continues to administer the injections, and his wife falls into a fatal coma.

The color sequences are shown reverse-chronologically. In the story's chronology, Leonard self-directively gets a tattoo of John G's license plate. Finding a note in his clothes, he meets Natalie, a bartender who resents Leonard because he wears the clothes and drives the car of her boyfriend, Jimmy Grantz. After understanding Leonard's condition, she uses it to get Leonard to drive a man named Dodd out of town and offers to run the license plate as a favor. Meanwhile, Leonard meets with a contact, Teddy, who helps with Dodd, but warns about Natalie. However, a photograph causes Leonard not to trust Teddy. Natalie provides Leonard with the driver's license for a John Edward Gammell, Teddy's full name. Confirming Leonard's information on "John G" and his warnings, Leonard drives Teddy to an abandoned building, leading to the opening, where he shoots him.

In the final black-and-white sequence, prompted by the caller, Leonard meets with Teddy, an undercover officer, who has found Leonard's "John G," Jimmy, and directs Leonard to the abandoned building. When Jimmy arrives, Leonard strangles him fatally and takes a Polaroid photo of the body. As the photo develops, the black-and-white transitions to the final color sequence. Leonard swaps clothes with Jimmy, hearing him whisper "Sammy." As Leonard has only told Sammy's story to those he has met, he suddenly doubts Jimmy's role. Teddy arrives and asserts that Jimmy was John G, but when Leonard is undeterred, Teddy reveals that he helped him kill the real attacker a year ago, and he has been using Leonard ever since. Teddy points out that since the name "John G" is common, Leonard will cyclically forget and begin again and that even Teddy himself has a "John G" name. Further, Teddy claims that Sammy's story is Leonard's own story, a memory Leonard has repressed to escape guilt.

After hearing Teddy's exposition, Leonard consciously burns Jimmy's photograph, writes a message to himself on Teddy's photograph that he should not trust Teddy, and drives off in Jimmy's car. He then has Teddy's license plate number tattooed on himself, as if Teddy were the second attacker, leading to Teddy's eventual death.


Film structure[edit]

The sujet (syuzhet), or the presentation of the film, is structured with two timelines: one in color and one in black-and-white. The color sequences are alternated with black-and-white sequences. The latter are put together in chronological order. The color ones, though shown forward (except for the very first one, which is shown in reverse), are ordered in reverse. Chronologically, the black-and-white sequences come first, the color sequences come next.

Using the numbering scheme suggested by Andy Klein in his article for Salon magazine[4] who took numbers from 1 to 22 for the black-and-white sequences and letters A–V for the color ones the plotting of the film as presented is: Opening Credits (shown "backward"), 1, V, 2, U, 3, T, 4, S, ..., 22/A, Credits.

There is a smooth transition from the black-and-white sequence 22 to color sequence A and it occurs during the development of a Polaroid photograph.

The fabula of the film (the chronological order of the story) can be viewed as a "Hidden feature" on the 2-Disc Limited Edition Region 1DVD[8] and the 3-Disc special Edition Region 2 DVD.[9] In this special feature the chapters of the film are put together into the chronological order and is shown: Ending Credits (run in reverse), 1, 2, 3, ..., 22, A, B, ..., V, then the opening title runs "backward" to what was shown (the opening title sequence is run in reverse during the actual film, so it is shown forward in this version).

Stefano Ghislotti wrote an article in Film Anthology[10] which discusses how Nolan provides the viewer with the clues necessary to decode the sujet as we watch and help us understand the fabula from it. The color sequences include a brief overlap to help clue the audience into the fact that they are being presented in reverse order. The purpose of the fragmented reverse sequencing is to force the audience into a sympathetic experience of Leonard's defective ability to create new long-term memories, where prior events are not recalled, since the audience has yet to see them.



In July 1996, brothers Christopher and Jonathan Nolan took a cross-country road trip from Chicago to Los Angeles, as Christopher was relocating his home to the West Coast. During the drive, Jonathan pitched the story for the film to his brother, who responded enthusiastically to the idea.[11] After they arrived in Los Angeles, Jonathan left for Washington, D.C., to finish college at Georgetown University. Christopher repeatedly asked Jonathan to send him a first draft, and after a few months, Jonathan complied.[12] Two months later, Christopher came up with the idea to tell the film backwards, and began to work on the screenplay. Jonathan wrote the short story simultaneously, and the brothers continued to correspond, sending each other subsequent revisions of their respective works.[13] Christopher initially wrote the script as a linear story, and then would "go back and reorder it the way it is on screen to check the logic of it."[14]

Jonathan's short story, titled "Memento Mori," is radically different from Christopher's film, although it maintains the same essential elements. In Jonathan's version, Leonard is instead named Earl and is a patient at a mental institution.[15] As in the film, his wife was killed by an anonymous man, and during the attack on his wife, Earl lost his ability to create new long-term memories. Like Leonard, Earl leaves notes to himself and has tattoos with information about the killer. However, in the short story, Earl convinces himself through his own written notes to escape the mental institution and murder his wife's killer. Unlike the film, there is no ambiguity that Earl finds and kills the anonymous man.[15]

In July 1997, Nolan's girlfriend (later wife) Emma Thomas showed his screenplay to Aaron Ryder, an executive for Newmarket Films. Ryder said the script was, "perhaps the most innovative script I had ever seen",[16] and soon after, it was optioned by Newmarket and given a budget of $4.5 million.[17] Pre-production lasted seven weeks, during which the main shooting location changed from Montreal, Quebec to Los Angeles, California, to create a more realistic and noirish atmosphere for the film.[18]


Brad Pitt was initially slated to play Leonard. Pitt was interested in the part, but passed due to scheduling conflicts.[19] Other considered actors included Aaron Eckhart (who would later work with Nolan on The Dark Knight) and Thomas Jane, but the role went to Guy Pearce, who impressed Nolan the most. Pearce was chosen partly for his "lack of celebrity" (after Pitt passed, they "decided to eschew the pursuit of A-list stars and make the film for less money by using an affordable quality actor"), and his enthusiasm for the role, evidenced by a personal phone call Pearce made to Nolan to discuss the part.[20]

After being impressed by Carrie-Anne Moss' performance as Trinity in the 1999 science fiction film The Matrix, Jennifer Todd suggested her for the part of Natalie. While Mary McCormack lobbied for the role, Nolan decided to cast Moss as Natalie, saying, "She added an enormous amount to the role of Natalie that wasn't on the page".[21] For the corrupt police officer Teddy, "comedian Denis Leary was mentioned, though proved unavailable".[22] Moss suggested her co-star from The Matrix, Joe Pantoliano.[23] Although there was a concern that Pantoliano might be too villainous for the part, he was still cast, and Nolan said he was surprised by the actor's subtlety in his performance.[22]

The rest of the film's characters were quickly cast after the three main leads were established. Stephen Tobolowsky and Harriet Sansom Harris play Sammy Jankis and his wife, respectively. Mark Boone Junior landed the role of Burt, the motel clerk, because Jennifer Todd liked his "look and attitude" for the part (as a result he has re-appeared in minor roles in other productions by Nolan).[24]


Filming took place from September 7 to October 8, 1999,[25] a 25-day shooting schedule. Pearce was on set every day during filming, although all three principal actors (including Pantoliano and Moss) only performed together the first day, shooting exterior sequences outside Natalie's house. All of Moss' scenes were completed in the first week,[26] including follow-up scenes at Natalie's home, Ferdy's bar, and the restaurant where she meets Leonard for the final time.

Pantoliano returned to the set late in the second week to continue filming his scenes. On September 25, the crew shot the opening scene in which Leonard kills Teddy. Although the scene is in reverse motion, Nolan used forward-played sounds.[27] For a shot of a shell casing flying upwards, the shell had to be dropped in front of the camera in forward motion, but it constantly rolled out of frame. Nolan was forced to blow the casing out of frame instead, but in the confusion, the crew shot it backwards.[27] They then had to make an optical (a copy of the shot) and reverse the shot to make it go forward again. "That was the height of complexity in terms of the film", Nolan said. "An optical to make a backwards running shot forwards, and the forwards shot is a simulation of a backwards shot."[28]

The next day, on September 26, Larry Holden returned to shoot the sequence where Leonard attacks Jimmy.[29] After filming was completed five days later, Pearce's voice-overs were recorded. For the black-and-white scenes, Pearce was given free rein to improvise his narrative, allowing for a documentary feel.[28]

The Travel Inn in Tujunga, California, was repainted and used as the interior of Leonard's and Dodd's motel rooms and the exterior of the film's Discount Inn. Scenes in Sammy Jankis' house were shot in a suburban home close to Pasadena, while Natalie's house was located in Burbank.[30] The crew planned to shoot the derelict building set (where Leonard kills Teddy and Jimmy) in a Spanish-styled brick building owned by a train company. However, one week before shooting began, the company placed several dozen train carriages outside the building, making the exterior unfilmable. Since the interior of the building had already been built as a set, a new location had to be found. An oil refinery near Long Beach was used instead, and the scene where Leonard burns his wife's possessions was filmed on the other side of the refinery.[31]


David Julyan composed the film's synthesized score. Julyan acknowledges several synthesized soundtracks that inspired him, such as Vangelis's Blade Runner and Hans Zimmer's The Thin Red Line.[32] While composing the score, Julyan created different, distinct sounds to differentiate between the color and black-and-white scenes: "brooding and classical" themes in the former, and "oppressive and rumbly noise" in the latter.[33] Since he describes the entire score as "Leonard's theme", Julyan says, "The emotion I was aiming at with my music was yearning and loss. But a sense of loss you feel but at the same time you don't know what it is you have lost, a sense of being adrift."[34] Initially, Nolan wanted to use Radiohead's "Paranoid Android" during the end credits, but he was unable to secure the rights.[35] Instead, David Bowie's "Something in the Air" is used, although another of Radiohead's songs, an extended version of "Treefingers", is included on the film's soundtrack.[36]


The film gained substantial word-of-mouth press from the film festival circuit. It premiered at the 2000 Venice Film Festival, where it received a standing ovation, and afterwards played at Deauville American Film Festival and the Toronto International Film Festival.[37] With the publicity from these events, Memento did not have trouble finding foreign distributors, opening in more than 20 countries worldwide. Its promotion tour ended at the Sundance Film Festival, where it played in January 2001.[38]

Finding American distributors proved more troublesome. Memento was screened for various studio heads (including Miramax chief Harvey Weinstein) in March 2000. Although most of the executives loved the film and praised Nolan's talent, all passed on distributing the picture, believing it was too confusing and would not attract a large audience.[39] After famed independent film director Steven Soderbergh saw the film and learned it was not being distributed, he championed the film in interviews and public events,[40] giving it even more publicity, although he did not secure a distributor. Newmarket, in a financially risky move, decided to distribute the film itself.[39] After the first few weeks of distribution, Memento had reached more than 500 theaters and earned a domestic total of $25 million in its box-office run. The film's success was surprising to those who passed on the film, so much so that Weinstein realized his mistake and tried to buy the film from Newmarket.[41]


Jonathan Nolan designed the film's official website. As with the marketing strategy of The Blair Witch Project, the website was intended to provide further clues and hints to the story, while not providing any concrete information.[42] After a short intro on the website, the viewer is shown a newspaper clipping detailing Leonard's murder of Teddy. Clicking on highlighted words in the article leads to more material describing the film, including Leonard's notes and photographs as well as police reports.[43] The filmmakers employed another tactic by sending out Polaroid pictures to random people, depicting a bloody and shirtless Leonard pointing at an unmarked spot on his chest.[44] Since Newmarket distributed the film themselves, Christopher Nolan edited the film's trailers himself.[44] Sold to inexpensive cable-TV channels like Bravo and A&E, and websites such as Yahoo and MSN, the trailers were key to the film gaining widespread public notice.

Home media[edit]

Memento was released on DVD and VHS in the United States and Canada on September 4, 2001, and in the United Kingdom on January 14, 2002. The UK edition contains a hidden feature that allows the viewer to watch the film in chronological order. The Canadian version does not have this feature but the film chapters are set up to do this manually or through DVD programming. The original US release does not have the chronological feature nor are the chapters set up correctly to do it.

The film was later re-released in a limited edition DVD that features an audio commentary by Christopher Nolan, the original short story by Jonathan Nolan on which the film was based, and a Sundance Channel documentary on the making of the film.[45] The limited edition DVD also contains a hidden feature that allows the viewer to watch the film in chronological order.[46]

The Limited Edition DVD is packaged to look like Leonard's case file from a mental institution, with notes scribbled by "doctors" and Leonard on the inside.[46] The DVD menus are designed as a series of psychological tests; the viewer has to choose certain words, objects, and multiple choice answers to play the movie or access special features.[46] Leonard's "notes" on the DVD case offer clues to navigating the DVD.

Memento was re-released in the UK on a 3-disc Special Edition DVD on December 27, 2004. This release contains all the special features that are on the two US releases in one package plus a couple of new interviews. The menus appear as tattoos on a body and are more straightforward than the US 2-disc limited edition DVD.

Memento was released on Blu-ray on August 15, 2006. This release lacks the special features contained on the Limited Edition DVD, but does include the audio commentary by director Christopher Nolan. The single-layer disc features an MPEG-2 1080p transfer and PCM 5.1 surround audio. The film was also released on iTunes as a digital download.

The film was re-released on the Blu-ray and DVD in the USA on 22 February 2011 by Lionsgate following the 10th anniversary of the film. Both the Blu-ray and DVD have a new transfer that was also shown in theaters recently[when?]. Aside from the transfer, the Blu-ray contains a new special featurette by Nolan on the film's legacy.[47]


Box office[edit]

Memento was a box office success. In the United States, during its opening weekend, it was released in only 11 theaters, but by week 11 it was distributed to more than 500 theaters.[48] It grossed over $25 million in North America and $14 million in other countries, making the film's total worldwide gross some $40 million as of August 2007.[48] During its theatrical run, it did not place higher than eighth in the list of highest-grossing movies for a single weekend.[49]

Critical response[edit]

Memento was met with critical acclaim, earning a 92% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.[50] Online film critic James Berardinelli gave the film four out of four stars, ranking it number one on his year-end Top Ten list and number sixty-three on his All-Time Top 100 films.[51][52] In his review, he called it an "endlessly fascinating, wonderfully open-ended motion picture [that] will be remembered by many who see it as one of the best films of the year".[53] Berardinelli praised the film's backwards narrative, saying that "what really distinguishes this film is its brilliant, innovative structure", and noted that Guy Pearce gives an "astounding...tight, and thoroughly convincing performance".[53] In 2009, Berardinelli chose Memento as his #3 best movie of the decade. William Arnold of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer writes that Memento is a "delicious one-time treat", and emphasizes that director Christopher Nolan "not only makes Memento work as a non-linear puzzle film, but as a tense, atmospheric thriller".[54] Rob Blackwelder noted that "Nolan has a crackerjack command over the intricacies of this story. He makes every single element of the film a clue to the larger the story edges back toward the origins of [Leonard's] quest".[55]

However, not all critics were impressed with the film's structure. Marjorie Baumgarten wrote, "In forward progression, the narrative would garner little interest, thus making the reverse storytelling a filmmaker's conceit."[56] Sean Burns of the Philadelphia Weekly commented that "For all its formal wizardry, Memento is ultimately an ice-cold feat of intellectual gamesmanship. Once the visceral thrill of the puzzle structure begins to wear off, there's nothing left to hang onto. The film itself fades like one of Leonard's temporary memories."[57] While Roger Ebert gave the film a favorable three out of four stars, he did not think it warranted multiple viewings. After watching Memento twice, he concluded that "Greater understanding helped on the plot level, but didn't enrich the viewing experience. Confusion is the state we are intended to be in."[58]Jonathan Rosenbaum disliked the film, and commented in his review of Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind that Memento is a "gimmicky and unpoetic counterfeit" of Alain Resnais's 1968 film Je t'aime, je t'aime.[59]

In 2005, the Writers Guild of America ranked the screenplay #100 on its list of 101 Greatest Screenplays ever written.[60] In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the fourteenth best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership.[61]

Scientific response[edit]

Many medical experts have cited Memento as featuring one of the most realistic and accurate depictions of anterograde amnesia in the history of motion pictures. Caltech neuroscientist Christof Koch called Memento "the most accurate portrayal of the different memory systems in the popular media",[62] while physician Esther M. Sternberg, Director of the Integrative Neural Immune Program at the National Institute of Mental Health, identified the film as "close to a perfect exploration of the neurobiology of memory."[63]

Sternberg concludes: "This thought-provoking thriller is the kind of movie that keeps reverberating in the viewer's mind, and each iteration makes one examine preconceived notions in a different light. Memento is a movie for anyone interested in the workings of memory and, indeed, in what it is that makes our own reality."

Clinical neuropsychologist Sallie Baxendale writes in The BMJ:

The overwhelming majority of amnesic characters in films bear little relation to any neurological or psychiatric realities of memory loss. ... Apparently inspired partly by the neuropsychological studies of the famous patient HM (who developed severe anterograde memory impairment after neurosurgery to control his epileptic seizures) and the temporal lobe amnesic syndrome, the film documents the difficulties faced by Leonard, who develops a severe anterograde amnesia after an attack in which his wife is killed. Unlike in most films in this genre, this amnesic character retains his identity, has little retrograde amnesia, and shows several of the severe everyday memory difficulties associated with the disorder. The fragmented, almost mosaic quality to the sequence of scenes in the film also reflects the 'perpetual present' nature of the syndrome.[64]

Interpretations and analysis[edit]

By going backward in time, Memento draws the real mystery from viewers learning the first step in Leonard's investigation, the origins of his self-deception. Yes, we also learn what really happened to his wife, what happened to him, and what happened to his killer, and we understand more about Teddy's complicated role in using Leonard for his own purposes. But the most telling revelation at the end of Memento isn’t limited to his condition: Leonard lies to himself. And when he isn’t outright lying to himself, he's guilty of confirmation bias, accepting only the facts that affirm his pre-cooked conclusions, and tossing out all the rest.

-Scott Tobias, from The A.V. Club[65]

Since its release, Memento has been a widely noted topic of film discussion, both for its unique narrative structure and themes. Those searching for explanations of the film's plot have either resorted to online forums, message boards or scholarly material, or have ignored the film's official website and forums in order to maintain their own personal hypotheses.[66] In an article for The Dissolve analyzing Nolan's work, Mike D'Angelo cites Memento as "a masterful study in deliberate self-delusion," alluding to Leonard's own actions towards the end of the film and his role as an unreliable narrator.[67] On the same topic of self-deception, James Mooney of notes that the film suggests how "our memories deceive us, or rather, sometimes we deceive ourselves by ‘choosing’ to forget or by manipulating our memories of past events."[68] This is much in line with a psychological analysis of the film, specifically the act of confabulation. Leonard's use of confabulation poses the dilemma, as explained by SUNY Downstate Medical Center Professor John Kubie for "In Memento we are faced with the question of how much of Leonard's memory of the past is real and how much constructed from beliefs and wishes."[69]

Author Chuck Klosterman has written in-depth about Memento in his essay collection Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto, specifically on the diner scene with Leonard and Natalie.[70]

In an interview with Chuck Stephens for Filmmaker in 2001 Nolan also stated:

The most interesting part of that for me is that audiences seem very unwilling to believe the stuff that Teddy [Pantoliano] says at the end and yet why? I think its because people have spent the entire film looking at Leonard's photograph of Teddy, with the caption: "Don't believe his lies." That image really stays in people's heads, and they still prefer to trust that image even after we make it very clear that Leonard's visual recollection is completely questionable. It was quite surprising, and it wasn't planned. What was always planned was that we don't ever step completely outside Leonard's head, and that we keep the audience in that interpretive mode of trying to analyze what they want to believe or not. For me, the crux of the movie is that the one guy who might actually be the authority on the truth of what happened is played by Joe Pantoliano ... who is so untrustworthy, especially given the baggage he carries in from his other movies: he's already seen by audiences as this character actor who's always unreliable. I find it very frightening, really, the level of uncertainty and malevolence Joe brings to the film.[71]

Best film list appearances[edit]

Awards and accolades[edit]

The film was nominated for Academy Awards in Original Screenplay and Film Editing, but did not win in either category.[86] Because Jonathan Nolan's short story was not published before the film was released, it was nominated for Original Screenplay instead of Adapted Screenplay and both Christopher and Jonathan received a nomination. It was also nominated for the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival, but lost to The Believer. However, it won 13 awards for Best Screenplay and five awards for Best Picture from various film critic associations and festivals, including the Chicago Film Critics Association and the Sundance Waldo Salt Screenwriting Award.[86] Christopher Nolan was nominated for three Best Director awards including the Directors Guild of America Award and was awarded one from the Independent Spirit Awards. Pearce was accorded Best Actor from the San Diego Film Critics Society and the Las Vegas Film Critics Society.[86] The film was also nominated for the prestigious Grand Prix of the Belgian Syndicate of Cinema Critics.[87]


Memento heavily inspired the TamilIndian filmGhajini (2005), which was in turn remade in Hindi as Ghajini (2008) and in Bengali/Bangla as Dhoka (2007).[citation needed]


AMBI Pictures announced in November 2015 that it plans to remake Memento, one of several film rights that AMBI acquired from its acquisition of Exclusive Media. Monika Bacardi, an executive for AMBI Pictures, stated that they plan to "stay true to Christopher Nolan's vision and deliver a memorable movie that is every bit as edgy, iconic and award-worthy as the original".[88]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"Memento". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  2. ^"Memento (2000)". British Film Institute. Retrieved June 14, 2014. 
  3. ^ ab"Memento (2001)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 21, 2014. 
  4. ^ abKlein, Andy (2001-06-28). "Everything you wanted to know about "Memento"". Salon. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  5. ^Session Timeout – Academy Awards® Database – AMPASArchived 2013-11-05 at the Wayback Machine.. (2010-01-29). Retrieved on 2011-01-26.
  6. ^"The 21st Century's 25 greatest films". BBC. 23 August 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  7. ^"'Titanic,' 'The Goonies,' 'Field of Dreams,' 'Memento' Added to National Film Registry". Variety. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  8. ^"2-Disc LE DVD Review". Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  9. ^"3 Disk SE DVD Review". Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  10. ^Ghislotti, Stefano (2003). "Backwards: Memory and Fabula Construction in "Memento" by Christopher Nolan". Film Anthology. Archived from the original on 2009-12-31. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  11. ^Kaufman, Anthony (2009-12-04). "Mindgames; Christopher Nolan Remembers "Memento"". Retrieved 2010-08-20. 
  12. ^Mottram, James (2002). The Making of Memento. New York: Faber. p. 162. ISBN 0-571-21488-6. 
  13. ^Mottram, p. 166.
  14. ^Neff, Renfreu (20 July 2015). "Remembering Where it All Began: Christopher Nolan on Memento". Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  15. ^ abNolan, Jonathan. "Memento Mori". Mottram. "Appendix", pp 183–95. See also: Nolan, Jonathan (2001). "Memento Mori". Esquire. Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  16. ^Mottram, p. 176.
  17. ^Mottram, p. 177.
  18. ^Mottram, p. 151-2.
  19. ^Mottram, p. 106.
  20. ^Mottram, p. 107-8.
  21. ^Mottram, p. 111.
  22. ^ abMottram, p. 112.
  23. ^"INTERVIEW WITH JOE PANTOLIANO (PART 2 OF 2)". IGN. 4 April 2001. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  24. ^Mottram, p. 114.
  25. ^Mottram, p. 125.
  26. ^Mottram, p. 127.
  27. ^ abNolan, Christopher (2002). Memento DVD commentary (DVD). Columbia TriStar. 
  28. ^ abMottram, p. 133.
  29. ^Mottram, p. 134.
  30. ^Mottram, p. 154-5.
  31. ^Mottram, p. 156-7.
  32. ^Mottram, p. 92, 96.
  33. ^Mottram, p. 96.
  34. ^Julyan, David. "Comments on Memento". Archived from the original on July 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  35. ^Mottram, p. 99.
  36. ^"Track Listing for "Memento: Music For and Inspired by the Film"". Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  37. ^Mottram, p. 62-4.
  38. ^Mottram, p. 65.
  39. ^ abFierman, Daniel (2001-03-21). "Memory Swerves: EW reports on the story behind the indie thriller". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
Fabula (events of the story) vs Sujet (when they are told in the narrative)
The Special Edition DVD's menus are arranged as items in a psychological test. Highlighting certain objects leads to special features.


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