MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-06-19 09:55:05
This page provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2016 format.
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." The New York Times, 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 12 May 2016.
Ebert, Roger. Review of An Inconvenient Truth, directed by Davis Guggenheim. rogerebert.com, 1 June 2006, www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an-inconvenient-truth-2006. Accessed 15 June 2016.
Gowdy, John. "Avoiding Self-organized Extinction: Toward a Co-evolutionary Economics of Sustainability." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27-36.
An Inconvenient Truth. Directed by Davis Guggenheim, performances by Al Gore and Billy West, Paramount, 2006.
Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology. Springer, 2005.
Milken, Michael, et al. "On Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 23, no. 4, 2006, p. 63.
Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control Global Warming." American Economic Review, vol. 96, no. 2, 2006, pp. 31-34.
---. "Global Warming Economics." Science, vol. 294, no. 5545, 9 Nov. 2001, pp. 1283-84, DOI: 10.1126/science.1065007.
Regas, Diane. “Three Key Energy Policies That Can Help Us Turn the Corner on Climate.” Environmental Defense Fund, 1 June 2016, www.edf.org/blog/2016/06/01/3-key-energy-policies-can-help-us-turn-corner-climate. Accessed 19 July 2016.
Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times, 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/video/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton-on-climate-change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016.
Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." US News & World Report, vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616.
Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge UP, 2003.
Generic Citation Format
For further details on the core elements, see How to Format the Works-Cited List.
NW 340/341-2 in the first example is the record label's catalog number for the album.
The date of original release (1993 in this example) is an optional element. Include it when it gives your reader insight into the creation of the work. While MLA Handbook, 8th edition, does not require "DVD" to be included in the citation, you can add it to help your reader know how you accessed the film.
If you are writing about a television episode without focusing on a particular individual's contribution, start the entry with the title. If you are focusing on the creator or performer, start with their name and role.
In the examples above, the first example is writing about the first episode in general and it was watched on Netflix. The second example is writing about Gina Rodriguez's performance in a particular episode that was watched online during the season. The last example is writing about the first season in general, watched on DVD. While MLA Handbook, 8th edition, does not require "DVD" to be included in the citation, you can add it to help your reader know how you accessed the film.
In the examples above, the first one is seeing the artwork in person, the second is accessing the image from the museum's website, the third is accessing it through the library database ArtStor, and the last is using an image from a book.
Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Source. Title of Container, Other Contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.
Schoenberg, Arnold. A Survivor from Warsaw For Narrator, Men's Chorus, and Orchestra. Op. 46, Bomart Music Publications, 1949.
Bernstein, Leonard. Candide: Opera House Version, 1982. Performance by the New York City Opera Chorus and Orchestra, NW 340/341-2, New World Records, 1986.
Beyoncé. "Sorry." Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade-visual-album/.
Peck, Raoul. L'homme sur les quais [The Man by the Shore]. 1993. Velvet Film, 2013. DVD.
"TNC:172 Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate, 1960." YouTube, uploaded by JFK Library, 21 Sept. 2010, www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbrcRKqLSRw.
"Chapter One: The Pilot." Jane the Virgin, created by Jennie Snyder Urman, season 1, episode 1, Poppy Productions, 2014. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/80060553.
Rodriguez, Gina, performer. "Chapter Forty-Four." Jane the Virgin, created by Jennie Snyder Urman, season 2, episode 22, The CW, 16 May 2016. www.cwtv.com/shows/jane-the-virgin/.
Jane the Virgin: Season 1. Created by Jennie Snyder Urman, performance by Gina Rodriguez, Warner Home Video, 2015. DVD.
Degas, Edgar. The Dance Class. 1874, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Degas, Edgar. The Dance Class. 1874. The Met, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/438817.
Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar. The Dance Class.1874. ArtStor, library.artstor.org.
Degas, Edgar. The Dance Class. 1875-1876. Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 12, 1974-February 10, 1975, edited by Anne Dayez, Michel Hoog, and Charles S. Moffett, [Metropolitan Museum of Art], 1974, p. 105.